Microbiology Ch 1-4 Flashcards


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1

(CH2O)n

carbohydrates

2

1 micro-meter organism

prokaryote

3

2 types of prokaryotic cells.....bacteria & archaea........how are different & simular?

Simular- they both possess prokaryotic cells diff- They have different chemicals in their cell walls.

4

10nm organism

virus

5

ability to distinguish between two points

resolution

6

alcohol decolorizer

alcohol-acetone

7

algae

Cell wall made of cellulose, photosynthetic

8

allow a cell to survive

endospore

9

Archaea

Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall

10

Baccili-

rod shaped

11

Bacteria

Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

12

bond between electron donor and acceptor

ionic bond

13

bond between H and O in H2O

covalent bond

14

bond between molecules of water

hydrogen bond

15

capitalized in a scientific name

genus

16

causes diseases

pathogenic

17

cell wall of chitin

Fungi

18

chemical process

dehydration or synthesis

19

chemical process that creates smaller molecules

hydrolysis or digestion

20

chemical reactions in a cell

metabolism

21

CHONPS

Carbon,Hydrogen,Oxygen,Nitrogen,Phosphorus, Sulfur

22

Coccus-

spherical

23

coined the word vaccination to honor another scientist

Pasteur

24

contains 3 fatty acids and glycerol

triglycero

25

contains amino and carboxyl group

protein

26

Corkscrew or curved

spiral

27

decomposition of molecules and synthesis of new molecules from their subunits

exchange reaction

28

Describe 2 types of endocytosis

phagocytosis-used by WBC to destroy bacteria & foreign substances.pinocytosis-the plasma membrane folds inward, bringing extracellular fluid into the cell, along w/whatever substances are dissolved in the fluid.

29

Determine atoms reactivity

valence

30

Developed vaccination against smallpox

Jenner

31

Diplo-

2

32

Discovered Penicillin

Flemming

33

Disproved spontaneous generation

Pasteur

34

EID's

emerging infectious disease

35

encloses cytoplasm

plasma membrane

36

endospores is called

sporogenesis

37

engulfing of large particles through plasma membrane

endocytosis

38

Even though the germ theory of disease was not demonstrated until 1876, why did Semmelweis (1840) and Lister (1867) argue for the use of aseptic techniques?

Though the theory was not completely known, Semmelweis and Lister observed healthier or more positive results from their patients with their new procedures.

39

Explained fermentation

Pasteur

40

Find at least three supermarket products made by microorganisms. (Hint: The label will state the scientific name of the organism or include the word culture, fermented, or brewed.)

Yogurt, beer, cheese.

41

first stain in gram stain

crystal violet

42

First to use disinfectants in surgical procedures

Lister

43

Formation of new cell from an endospore is

germination

44

formed by shared electrons

covalent bond

45

forms secondary structure of proteins

Hydrogen bond

46

Fungi

cell wall made of chitin

47

Giraffes, termites, and koalas eat only plant matter. Since animals cannot digest cellulose, how do you suppose these animals get nutrition from the leaves and wood that they ingest?

The animals have cellulose-degrading bacteria in specialized stuctures in the digestive tracts.

48

had monomers of amino acids

protein

49

has membrane bound nucleus

Eukaryote

50

have DNA or RNA

virus

51

Helminths

Multicellular cells

52

Helminths belong to this kingdom

Animal

53

helps a stain stick to an organism

mordant

54

How did the theory of biogenesis led the way for the germ theory of disease?

Koch would then be able to hypothesize what may be causing a disease (a living organism) enabling him to conjecture what he should observe in a sick host.

55

In Gram stain, one step could be omitted and still allow between gram-positive and gram-negative cells. What is that one step?

Step 1 can be omitted. Safranin can be omitted.

56

includes bacteria and archea

prokaryote

57

inorganic compound

water

58

last name is a scientific name

species

59

lens in the eyepiece

ocular

60

lens in the nosepiece

objective

61

light silhouette of organism seen against dark background

darkfield microscope

62

main component of plasma membrane

phospholipid molecule

63

maximum magnification 2000x

light micropscope

64

microscope with greatest magnification and resolution

darkfield micrscope

65

molecule that releases hydrogen ions

acid

66

mono, polysaccharides

carbohydrate

67

monomer of nucleic acid

nucleotide

68

most common microscope in microbiology

light microscope

69

passive diffusion that requires transporter proteins

facilitated diffusion

70

People believed all microbial disease would be controlled during the twentieth century. List three reasons why we are identifying new diseases now.

Microorganisms are ubiquitous; it would take a great effort to catalogue all the species.Microorganisms mutate into different strains; thus new diseases are created. With the leaps of technology, people may now engineer new strains.

71

polypeptide

Protein

72

products revert to reactants

reversible reaction

73

Prokaryote with cell wall of peptidoglycan

Bacteria

74

protect bacteria from antibiotics

biofilms

75

protozoa

unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall

76

proved that microorganisms can cause disease

Koch

77

provides some protection from phagocytes

glycocalyx

78

red stain used in acid-fast process

carbofuchsin

79

rod-like

Bacilli

80

selective permeability

plasma membrane

81

site of protein synthesis

ribosomes

82

smallest unit of life

cell

83

smallest unit of matter

atom or element

84

Staphylo-

cluster

85

Strepto-

chain

86

sugar, cellulose, chitin

Carbohydrates

87

Strepto-

chain

88

Tetrad-

4

89

The smallest eukaryotic cell is the motile alga Micromonas. What is the minimum number of organelles this alga must have?

Nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, flagellum

90

transports a substance down the concentration gradient

simple diffusion

91

transports a substance from a lower to a higher concentration

active transport

92

Unicellular prokaryote living in extreme environments

Archaea

93

used for motility

flagella

94

Used the first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent

Elrich

95

used to keep a sterile environment

aseptic techniques

96

utilizes UV source

fluorescence microscope

97

Viruses

not composed of cells

98

weakest bond

Hydrogen bond

99

What happens to the relative amount of unsaturated lipids in the plasma membrane when E.Coli grown at 25 C are then grown at 37 C?

The amount of unsaturates decreases, and the amount of saturated lipids increases

100

when E. Coli..........Which requires ATP?

increases intracelluar solute concentration bringing it closer to that of the hyperosmotic excellular environment & thus reducing the severity of plasmolysis.