Ch 22 Respiratory System Flashcards


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1

Mucous membranes of the nasal passages, nasopharynx and trachea are lined with what type of epithelium?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

2

The right lung has

2 fissures and 3 lobes

3

Internal respiration occurs

Between systemic capillaries and tissue cells

4

The vocal folds are found in the

layrnx

5

During internal and external respiration gases move by:

diffusion

6

the smallest and last tube the air flows through before it reaches the alveoli is the:

alveolar duct

7

which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?

phayrnx

8

This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea:

epiglottis

9

This is located anterior to the espophagus and carries air to the bronchi

trachea

10

The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called:

carina

11

Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?

in plasma as bicarbonate ions

12

Carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion of hemoglobin to form:

carbaminohemoglobin

13

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps:

carbon dioxide to react with water

14

If the air we breathe contains 10 percent of Gas X the partial pressure of Gas X is:

76mmHg

15

As blood enters the systematic capillaries:

PO2 is high in the blood and low in the tissues

16

When oxygen combines with the heme of hemoglobin what is formed?

Oxyhemoglobin

17

Tidal volume is:

The volume of air in one breath during normal relaxed breathing

18

Some hydrogen ions in the blood are produced by the dissociation of:

carbonic acid

19

The amount of oxygen that can combine with heme is determined mainly by the:

partial pressure of oxygen

20

In order for inspiration to occur:

Alveolar pressure must decrease

21

The amount of oxygen released by the hemoglobin molecules in the blood to the tissues:

increases as blood pH decreases (acidity increases)

22

In the lungs:

Pco2 is low in the alveoli and high in the capillaries

23

Surface tension of the alveolar fluid is reduced by the presence of:

surfactant

24

Eupnea refers to

a normal pattern of quiet breathing

25

The phrenic nerves innervate the:

diaphragm

26

Lung compliance is affected mainly by the amount of elastic tissue in the lungs and the:

amount of surfactant

27

The rhythm of normal breathing is controlled by neurons located in the:

medulla oblongata

28

When the diaphram lowers during breathing

Volume in the thoracic cavity increases

29

A disorder characterized by the destruction of the walls of the alveoli is:

emphysema

30

An increase in pulmonary capillary permeability or an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure leads to:

pulmonary edema

31

The most sensitive region of the respiratory tract for triggering the cough reflex is the:

carina

32

The function of alveolar macrophages "dust cells" is:

to remove debris fro alveolar spaces

33

During normal quiet breathing, the diaphram descends and the alveolar pressure decreases about:

2mmHg

34

When we inhale:

Both alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure decrease

35

A modified respiratory pattern involves a series of convulsive inspirations followed by a single prolonged expiration

sobbing

36

THis is a disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hypersensitivity to a variety of stimuli, and airway obstruction. Symptoms include:Chest tightness, coughing and wheezing

asthma

37

At a partial pressure of 105 mmHg in the alveoli the percent saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries will be:

almost 100 percent

38

The most common infectious cause of death in the US is:

pneumonia

39

this area transmits inhibitory impulses to turn off the inspiratory area before the lungs become too full of air

pneumotaxic area

40

This area sends stimulatory impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inhalation

apneustic area

41

This area controls the basic rhythm of respiration

medullary rhythmicity

42

Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system?

trachea

43

Pitch is controlled by

amount of tension of the vocal chords

44

This is the primary gas exchange site

alveolus

45

WHich of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs below the layrnx

cilitated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

46

which of the below tissues MAINTAINS OPEN AIRWAYS in the lower respiratory system

hyaline cartilage

47

Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surgaces of the alveolus?

simple squamous epithelium

48

These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant

type II alveolar cells

49

Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on?

force of contraction of diaphragm

50

This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.

oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide into blood

51

This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs:

oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

52

These terms mean the lungs and the chest wall expands easily:

high compliance

53

IN ventilation-perfusion coupling, a high CO2 level causes the smooth muscles in the bronchioles that service the area to constrict

False

54

IN ventilation-perfusion coupling, a low O2 level causes the terminal arterioles that service the area to constrict

True

55

Oxygen binds to hemoglobin much more tightly than carbon monoxide

False

56

BPG an intermedite in anaerobic respiration, when bound reversiby with hemoglobin lowers hemoglobin's affinity to oxygen

True

57

An decreased temperature causes hemoglobin to unload oxygen more easily

False

58

Cutting the phrenic nerve will cause paralysis of the diaphragm

True

59

When the inspiratory muscles of the chest wall contract, the size of the thoracic cavity decreases

False

60

The bulk of the carb on dioxide carried in the blood plasma is i the form of HCO3-

True

61

INfant respiratory distress syndrome occurs when infants are not able to easily keep their alveoli open between breaths due to insufficient amounts of surfactant

True