Chemistry Final Flashcards


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created 11 years ago by Kels_Mulholland
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updated 11 years ago by Kels_Mulholland
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1

Physical Changes

Changes without changing its chemical composition
(condense, freeze, melt, dissolve, grin, change in state)

2

Chemical Changes

When 1 or more substances change into new substances
Chemical compostion changes
Chemical Reaction
(change in odor, gas, precipitate, energy light, heat, color change)

3

Physical Property

observed without changing chemical compostion
(boiling point, melting point, solubility, color, odor, hardness, density)

4

Chmical property

ability to undergo a chem reaction
(flammable, rusting, not reacting)

5

Law of conservation of mass

matter is neither created no destroyed

6

Elements

a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances

7

Compounds

pure substance made from atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically bonded (H20)

8

Dalton's Atomic Theory

1. All matter is made of atoms that are indivisible and indestructible
2. All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3. Compounds are formed by a combo of 2 or more different kinds of atoms
4. Chemical reactions rearrange atoms

9

Structure of an Atom

Nucleus: Made of protons and neutrons (In the center)
Electrons: Orbit around the nucleus in specific energy levels

10

Godl foil Experiment

ERnest Rutherford shot positively charged particles (alpha particles) at a thin piece of foil and some went right through while some reflected back
Conclusions:1. most of an atom is empty space 2. atoms have a nucleus (small dense core with a positvie charge)

11

# of protons=

atomic # and # of electrons

12

atomic # =

# protons and # electrons

13

Mass #=

# protons + # neutrons

14

Isotopes

forms of the same atom that vary in mass and have a different number of neutrons (common to al elements-not all natural)

15

Hyphen Notation

Cu-63 (63=mass)

16

Nuclear Symbol

63 CU
29 (63= mass 29 = atomic #)

17

Quantum Mechanical Model

(Schrodinger) Quantum- the amount of energy required to move an electron from its present energy level to the nest higher one
-Mathematical formula to describe the probability of finding electrons within a certain space

18

Energy level

(Floors) region aroudn teh nucleus where the electron is likely to be moving n= 1, 2, 3, 4, etc

19

Sublevels

(Rooms) each energy level is broken up into sublevels
# of sublevels= # of quantum for that energy level

20

Orbitals

(Beds) 2 electrons per bed
S-Spherical shaped
P-Dumbell Shaped
D-Clover shaped
F-too complex

21

Democritus

believed that matter was composed of atoms based on mental reasoning

22

John Dalton

believed atoms were solid and indivisible mass based on research

23

J.J Thomson

(plum pudding)discovered the electron, electrons stuck into a lump of positively charged material- didnt know specifics

24

Ernest Rutherford

Most of an atoms mass is concentrated in a small positively charged region called the nucleus

25

Neils Bohr

electrons orbit around the nucleus

26

Quantum Mechanical

Erwin Shrodinger- based on math- where the electrons are located

27

DeChancourtois

fully functioning periodic table on a cylinder

28

Canizaro

atomic mass

29

Mendeleyev

periodic table

30

Mosley

arranged table based on mass

31

Seaborg

Final version of the table

32

Light

Little packets of photons

33

Wavelength (h)

Visible light ahs a h of 700-750 nm
1nm = 1 x 10-9 m

34

Frequency

v

35

Velocity (C)

C=hv
Light travels throgh space at 3.00 * 108 m/s

36

Calculating energy of a photon

E=Hv
E= energy
H- Plancks constant= 6.662 * 10-34 Js
v= frequency

37

Brightness of a light depends on...

Amplitude

38

Ionization energy

energy required to remvoe an electron from an ion or atom

39

Electronegativity

low to high
amount of pull that an atom's nucleus exerts on another atom's electrons when they are bonded

40

Atomic Radius

an atom's size depending on the volume occupied by electrons around the nucleus

41

Octet Rule

atoms will have 8 valence elctrons

42

Chemical Bond

bodnign together of atoms due to an electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence elctrons (ionic and covalent)

43

Ionic bonds

attraction of ions in which atoms completely give up electrons to other atoms (cations+anions)

44

Ionic compound

combination of a metal cation and a non-metal anion in order to establish a stable, neutral compound

45

Cation

Positive charge (metals)

46

Anions

Negative charge (nonmetals)

47

Monoatomic Ion

Made up of one type of atom

48

Polyatomic Ion

Tightly bound group of atoms that act as a whole and have a charge- NH4

49

Calculating cation charge

1.Find the charge of the anion
2. Multiply the charge of anion by the subscript of the anion
3. Divide by the subscript on the cation

50

Covalent compounds

bonds form so atoms can be stable

51

Covalent bonds

forms from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons

52

Non-polar covalent

Bonding electrons are being shared equally between the bonded atoms

53

polar covalent

shared pair of electrons is held more closely by one fo the atoms
-electrons closer to atom with higher electronegativity

54

Dipole

a molecule that has a positvie end and a negative end

55

Lewis Dot structure

Add together total number of valence electrons

56

Avogadros #

1 mole = 6.022 * 10 23

57

Molar Mass

mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance

58

Percent composition

Molar Mass of element *10
Molar mass of compound

59

Empirical formula

shows the simplest ration for elements
1. Conver % to grams
2. Convert grams to mol
3. Subscripts to whole number (divide by lowest)
(If its still not whole number mulitply by whole numbers)

60

Molecular formula

a whole number multipe of an empirical formula

61

Synthesis

A+B= AB

62

Decompostion

AB = A + B

63

Single Displacement

AB + M = MB + A

64

Double Displacement

AB + CD = AD + BC

65

Combustion

CxHyO2 = CO2 + H20

66

Diatomic

Br I N Cl H O F

67

Stoichiometry

use of reactatnts and products to perform calculations

68

Actual yield

measured amount of a product obtaienc from a reaction

69

Theoretical

max amount of product that can be produced in a given reaction

70

Limiting Reactant

1.convert both reactants to grams of the same product
2. Identify the L.R (one that produces least amount of product)

71

Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. used to predict gas behavior
2. states gas particles are in constant motion

72

Solvent

dissolving medium

73

Soute

what is being dissolved

74

Hydrogen Bond

bond between hydrogen and dipole

75

London dispersion

al the electrons are on one side and it is a temporary dipole

76

Dipole-dipole

like a battery

77

Heterogeneous Mixture

not uniform throughout, composed of dissimilar things, can be seperated

78

Homogeneous Mixture

uniform composition or structure throughout, same proportions throught can not be filtered

79

Suspension

particles are initially dispersed but will eventually settle out (Hetero)

80

Solution

Particles are dispersed throughout (homo)

81

Colloid

gas dispersed in liquid (particles are intermediate in size betweeen those of solutions and suspensions (S, L, G)

82

Electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in a liquid solvent and provides ions that conduct electricity

83

non-electrolyte

does not allow an electric curret to move through (no ions)

84

Saturated

Can not dissolve any more solute under conditions

85

Unsaturated

solution with less solute then the saturated solution-can dissolve more

86

Super Saturated

A soluton with more dissolved solute than a saturated and cannot dissolve more

87

Boiling Point Elevation

dissolved salt raises the boiling point causing water to boil at a higher temp

88

Freezing Point Depression

dissolved salt lowers the freezing point

89

Colligative Property

a property of a substance that is determined by the number of particles present in the system but independent of the properties of the particles themselves- the degree of the effect depends on the concentration

90

Reversible Reactions

products reform into the original reactants

91

Neutralization

Occurs when H30 and OH react to rofm H20 and salt

92

Equivalence Point

point at which neutralization reaction is complete

93

Titration

gradual additon of one solution to another reach teh equivalence point

94

self ionization

when a pair of H20 molecules are in equilibrium