Exercise 7: The Integumentary System
The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are dense connective tissue, which makes up the dermis, and __1__, which forms the epidermis.
Most cells of the epidermis are __2__. The protein __3__ makes the dermis tough and leather like. The specialized cells that produce the pigments that
contribute to skin color are called __4__.
1. stratified squamous epithelium
Four protective functions of the skin are?
1. prevents desiccation
2. prevents bacterial invasion
3. protects against thermal damage
4. protects against UV radiation.
translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils
stratum corneum and stratum lucidum
dermal layer responsible for finger prints
dermis as a whole
major skin area that produces derivatives(nails and hair)
epidermis as a whole
epidermal area exhibiting the most rapid cell division
scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, constantly slough off
mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments
has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers
dermis as a whole
location of melanocytes and tactile (merkle) cells
area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear
region of areolar connective tissue
_____________ granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through the epidermis
fibers in the dermis are produced by ______________.
glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the ____________________ glands.
sebaceous and apocrine glands
phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called _____________________________.
epidermal dendritic or langerhans cells
a unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a __________________.
tactile or Merkel disc
What layer is present in the thick skin but not in thin skin?
What cell-to-cell structure holds the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together?
What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?
List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin:
free nerve endings for pain, temperature, messiners corpuscles for touch in the hairless skin, pacinian corpuscles for pressure
A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanotic.
A blue cast to the skin
What does cyanotic presence imply?
Inadequate oxygenation of the blood
What is a bedsore (decubitus ulcer)?
localized area of tissue necrosis and death
Why do ulcers occur?
pressure areas point of increased pressure over bony areas restrict the blood supply to the area
Produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead
Tiny muscles, attached to hair folicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold
Perspiration glands with a role in temperature control
Sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues
Less numerous type of perspiration-prouducing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions
Found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of the feet
Primarily dead/keratinized cells
nail and hair
Specialized nerve ending that respond to temperature, touch, etc.
Secretes a lubricant for hair and skin
"sports" a lunule and cuticle
Describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:
1. When capillary blood dlow to the skin and enhanced by nervous system controls, heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of blood flow conserves body heat.
2. Activity of sweat glands i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.
With what substance in the bond paper does the iodine painted on the skin react?
Based on class data, which skin area--the forearm or palm of hand--has more sweat glands?
Which other body areas would if tested prove to have a high density of sweat glands?
Face and Axillae
What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands?
Why can fignerprints be used to identify individuals?
The pattern of your epidermal ridges is unique and does not change during your lifetime. Everyones fingerprint was made different, therefore this is a useful way for people to identify one another.
Name the three common fingerprint patterns:
Loops, Arches and Whorls