These are lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol:
Which of the following is a major eicosanoid?
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
What is a major difference in the mechanism of action of a water-soluble hormone versus a lipid-soluble
the use of a second messenger in elicting their action
When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, the interaction is called:
Which of the following hormone pairs does not have opposite functions:
T4 and T3
Recall your knowledge of the sympathetic system. What would be the outcome of an injection of
increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, dialated bronchi, and decreased peristalsis
What controls the anterior pituitary gland?
action of the hypothalamic hormones
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth:
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulate milk production:
Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of which ions in the blood?
Which blood glucose-lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?
Medullary chromaffin cells are analogous to postganglionic neurons and are found in the:
Estrogen is to the female as this hormone is to the male:
When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called:
For the formation of thyroxine to occur, it is essential that the ion of this element be present.
What stimulates the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland?
low levels of calcium ion in the blood
These cells in the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin:
Target cells for hypothalamic inhibiting and releasing hormones are in the:
Releasing and inhibiting hormones that control the release of hormones in the anterior pituitary come
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of steroid hormones?
receptors are located on the cell membrane
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
Which of the following pairs produce antagonistic results?
calcitonin and parathyroid
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):
stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids results in the following clinical symptoms: redistribution of body fat, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, 'moon face' and 'buffalo hump', excessive bruising, and poor wound healing. These symptoms are associated with:
A sign of pituitary dwarfism is:
premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
Which of the following are associated with diabetes mellitus?
glycisuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia
local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them
Eicosanoid hormones are produced in:
all cells except red blood cells
This is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems:
Blood passes in a direct route from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland through the:
hypophyseal portal vein
The posterior pituitary gland stores and secretes:
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Abnormally low secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in the disease:
The pineal gland is located in the:
Alpha cells secrete insulin that increases blood glucose.
Therapeutic lipid soluble hormones must be injected whereas peptide hormones can be administered
A common second messenger is cAMP.
When the effect of two or more hormones acting together is greater than the sum of each, this is said to be a synergistic effect.
Lipid soluble hormones have their receptors in the cytoplasm (or nucleus) of target cells.
Gonadotrophs are cells within the posterior pituitary that secrete follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
Most of the action of human growth hormone (hGH) is to promote the synthesis and secretion of small
protein hormones called insulinlike growth factors or somatomedins.
The hypothalamus controls most of the endocrine releases from the pituitary.
Increased secretion of calcitonin, produced in the (thyroid, parathyroid) gland (raises, lowers) blood calcium and phosphate by (stimulating, inhibiting) bone resorption by osteoclasts.
thyroid, lowers, inhibiting
Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (increases, decreases) bone resorption and (increases, decreases) blood calcium and phosphate.
The adrenal medulla secretes these amines after stimulation of sympathetic nerves to supplement or prolong the "fight or flight" response - _____________________ and ________________________
Stimulates growth of axillary and pubic hair
Augments the fight or flight response
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress
Increases blood glucose level
Local hormones involved in inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, and blood flow
Stimulates or inhibits the secretion of the hormones of the anterior pituitary
hypothalamic regulating (releasing and inhibiting) hormones
Stimulates synthesis and release of T3 and T4
thyroid stimulating hormone
Stimulates egg and sperm production
follicle stimulating hormone
Decreases blood glucose level
Regulates the body's biological clock and sleep cycles
Promotes T cell maturation
Stimulates sex hormone production, triggers ovulation
Helps control water and electrolyte homeostasis
Enhances uterine contractions during labor; stimulates milk ejection
Increases blood Ca+2 level
Regulates oxygen use, basal metabolic rate, cellular metabolism, and growth and development
thyroxine and triidothyronine
Increases skin pigmentation in animals and controls appetite in humans
Initiates and maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands
Inhibits water loss through the kidneys
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
Stimulates protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown, stimulates lipolysis, and retards the use of glucose for ATP production
human growth hormone
Decreases blood Ca+2 level
An enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to iodide deficiency
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone that is present at birth
congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in adults
Hyperthyroidism, an autoimmune disease
Hyposecretion of insulin or down regulation of insulin receptors
Hyposecretion of ADH
Hyposecretion of human growth hormone before epiphyseal plates close
Hypersecretion of human growth hormone after epiphyseal plates close
Hypersecretion of human growth hormone before epiphyseal plates close
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids