Anatomy Chapter 16

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Chapter 16 Credit Assignment
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1

These are lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol:

steroid hormones

2

Which of the following is a major eicosanoid?

prostaglandins and leukotrienes

3

What is a major difference in the mechanism of action of a water-soluble hormone versus a lipid-soluble
hormone?

the use of a second messenger in elicting their action

4

When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, the interaction is called:

antagonism

5

Which of the following hormone pairs does not have opposite functions:

T4 and T3

6

Recall your knowledge of the sympathetic system. What would be the outcome of an injection of
epinephrine:

increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, dialated bronchi, and decreased peristalsis

7

What controls the anterior pituitary gland?

action of the hypothalamic hormones

8

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth:

growth hormone

9

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulate milk production:

prolactin

10

Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of which ions in the blood?

calcium

11

Which blood glucose-lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?

insulin

12

Medullary chromaffin cells are analogous to postganglionic neurons and are found in the:

adrenal medula

13

Estrogen is to the female as this hormone is to the male:

testosterone

14

When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called:

down regulation

15

For the formation of thyroxine to occur, it is essential that the ion of this element be present.

iodine

16

What stimulates the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland?

low levels of calcium ion in the blood

17

These cells in the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin:

beta

18

Target cells for hypothalamic inhibiting and releasing hormones are in the:

anterior pituitary

19

Releasing and inhibiting hormones that control the release of hormones in the anterior pituitary come
from:

hypothalamus

20

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of steroid hormones?

receptors are located on the cell membrane

21

Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

pancreas

22

Which of the following pairs produce antagonistic results?

calcitonin and parathyroid

23

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):

stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids

24

Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids results in the following clinical symptoms: redistribution of body fat, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, 'moon face' and 'buffalo hump', excessive bruising, and poor wound healing. These symptoms are associated with:

Cushing's syndrome

25

A sign of pituitary dwarfism is:

premature closing of the epiphyseal plates

26

Which of the following are associated with diabetes mellitus?

glycisuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia

27

Autocrines are:

local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them

28

Eicosanoid hormones are produced in:

all cells except red blood cells

29

This is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems:

hypothalamus

30

Blood passes in a direct route from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland through the:

hypophyseal portal vein

31

The posterior pituitary gland stores and secretes:

oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone

32

Abnormally low secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in the disease:

diabetes insipidus

33

The pineal gland is located in the:

brain

34

Alpha cells secrete insulin that increases blood glucose.

False

35

Therapeutic lipid soluble hormones must be injected whereas peptide hormones can be administered
orally.

False

36

A common second messenger is cAMP.

True

37

When the effect of two or more hormones acting together is greater than the sum of each, this is said to be a synergistic effect.

True

38

Lipid soluble hormones have their receptors in the cytoplasm (or nucleus) of target cells.

True

39

Gonadotrophs are cells within the posterior pituitary that secrete follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

False

40

Most of the action of human growth hormone (hGH) is to promote the synthesis and secretion of small
protein hormones called insulinlike growth factors or somatomedins.

True

41

The hypothalamus controls most of the endocrine releases from the pituitary.

True

42

Increased secretion of calcitonin, produced in the (thyroid, parathyroid) gland (raises, lowers) blood calcium and phosphate by (stimulating, inhibiting) bone resorption by osteoclasts.

thyroid, lowers, inhibiting

43

Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (increases, decreases) bone resorption and (increases, decreases) blood calcium and phosphate.

increases, increases

44

The adrenal medulla secretes these amines after stimulation of sympathetic nerves to supplement or prolong the "fight or flight" response - _____________________ and ________________________

epinephrine, norepinephrine

45

Stimulates growth of axillary and pubic hair

androogens

46

Augments the fight or flight response

epinephrine and norepinephrine

47

Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress

cortisol

48

Increases blood glucose level

glucagon

49

Local hormones involved in inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, and blood flow

prostaglandins

50

Stimulates or inhibits the secretion of the hormones of the anterior pituitary

hypothalamic regulating (releasing and inhibiting) hormones

51

Stimulates synthesis and release of T3 and T4

thyroid stimulating hormone

52

Stimulates egg and sperm production

follicle stimulating hormone

53

Decreases blood glucose level

insulin

54

Regulates the body's biological clock and sleep cycles

melatonin

55

Promotes T cell maturation

thymosin

56

Stimulates sex hormone production, triggers ovulation

luteinizing hormone

57

Helps control water and electrolyte homeostasis

aldosterone

58

Enhances uterine contractions during labor; stimulates milk ejection

oxytocin

59

Increases blood Ca+2 level

parathyroid hormone

60

Regulates oxygen use, basal metabolic rate, cellular metabolism, and growth and development

thyroxine and triidothyronine

61

Increases skin pigmentation in animals and controls appetite in humans

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

62

Initiates and maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands

prolactin

63

Inhibits water loss through the kidneys

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin

64

Stimulates protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown, stimulates lipolysis, and retards the use of glucose for ATP production

human growth hormone

65

Decreases blood Ca+2 level

calcitonin

66

An enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to iodide deficiency

goiter

67

Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone that is present at birth

congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)

68

Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in adults

myxedema

69

Hyperthyroidism, an autoimmune disease

Grave's disease

70

Hyposecretion of insulin or down regulation of insulin receptors

diabetes mellitus

71

Hyposecretion of ADH

diabetes insipidus

72

Hyposecretion of human growth hormone before epiphyseal plates close

pituitary dwarfism

73

Hypersecretion of human growth hormone after epiphyseal plates close

acromegaly

74

Hypersecretion of human growth hormone before epiphyseal plates close

giantism

75

Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone

Addison's disease

76

Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids

Cushing's disease