Human Anatomy & Physiology: bio 121 Flashcards


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anatomy and physiology, education, teaching methods & materials, science & technology, medical, anatomy, physiology
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1

survival needs

-nutrients
-oxygen
-water
-normal body temperature
-appropriate atmospheric pressure

2

necessary life functions

-maintaing boundaries between internal and external
-movement
-responsiveness
-digestions
-metabolism
-excretion
-reproduction
-growth

3

organ system interrelationship

all cells depend on organ system to meet their survival needs

4

homeostasis

maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside change

5

homeostatic control mechanism

involve continuos monitoring and regulation of many factors

6

components of mechanism

-receptor(sensor)
-control center
-effector

7

water

most abundant chemical in the body

8

normal body temperature

affects rate of chemical reactions

9

appropriate atmospheric pressure

for adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

10

nutrients

chemical for energy and cell building

11

oxigen

essential for energy release (ATP production)

12

Metabolism

all chemical reactions that occur in the body
-catabolism and anabolism

13

excretion

the removal of waste from metabolism and digestion. (urea, carbon, dioxide, feces)

14

responsiveness

the ability to sense and respond to stimuli

15

digestion

-break down ingested foodstuffs
-absorption of simple molecules into blood

16

receptor

-responds stimuli
-detect change

17

control center

-determine appropriate response
-receive input from receptor

18

effector

-receive output from the control center
-response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

19

negative feedback

the response reduces or shut off the original stimulus
ex. regulation of body temperature

20

positive feedback

the response to exaggerates the original stimulus

21

homeostatic imbalance

-increase risk of disease
-may allow positive feedback mechanism to take over

22

cephalic

-frontal
-orbital
-nasal
-oral
-mental

23

thoracic

-axillary
-mammary
-sternal

24

upper limb

-acromial
-brachial
-antecubital
-antebrachial
-carpal

25

manus

-palmar
-pollex
-digital

26

pedal

tarsal (ankle)
metatarsal
digital
hallux

27

ventral (anterior)

in front of

28

dorsal (posterior)

behind

29

medial

at the midline of the body

30

lateral

away from the midline of the body

31

intermediate

between a more medial and more lateral structure

32

proximal

closer to the origin of the body part

33

distal

farther from the origin of a body part

34

superficial (external)

toward or at the body surface

35

deep (internal)

away from the body surface; more internal

36

two major division of the body

-axial (head, neck, trunk)
-appendicular (limbs)

37

body planes

-frontal (coronal)
-transverse
-sagittal plane
-missagittal

38

body cavity

-dorsal cavity
-ventral cavity

39

dorsal cavity

protect nervous system
-cranial cavity
-vertebral cavity

40

ventral cavity

houses internal organs
-thoracic cavity
-abdominalpelvic cavity

41

serous membrane (serosa)

thin, doble-layer membrane separated by serous fluid
- parienta serosa lines internal body walls
-visceral serosa cover the internal organs

42

matter?

is anything that take space and has mass

43

energy?

is the capacity to do work or put matter in motion

44

types of energy

-potential energy
-kinetic energy

45

forms of energy involved in body function?

-chemical
-electrical
-radiant
- mechanical

46

elements tha tmake up 96% of our body ?

-carbon
-hydrogen
-oxigen
-nitrogen

47

atoms

are compose of positive charge protons, negative charged electrons, and uncharged neutrons

48

mass number?

is the sum of protons and neutrons

49

atomic number?

number of protons

50

isotope

atoms of the same element can have diff. numbers of neutrons . the diff, version of each element are called isotopes.

51

atomic weight

is an average of the relative weight of all isotope of the elements

52

radioisotopes

is an atom with unstable nucleus, and emits radiation during it decay to stable form.

53

molecules

a molecule is the smallest unit resulting bounding of two or more atoms. if the atoms are diff. they form a molecule of a compound

54

types of mixtures

-solution
-colloids
-suspensions

55

what is chemical bonds?

is an energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms,and its it is made or broken in trillionth of a second.

56

types of chemical bonds

-ionic bonds
-covalent bonds
-hydrogen bonds

57

ionic bond

are formed when a electrons are completely transferred from ane atoms to another

58

covalent bond

are formed when atoms share electron pair. if the electron pair are share equally , the molecules are non polar. if they are share unequally, it is polar.

59

hydrogen bond

are weak bonds. it more like attraction than a true bonds. (the slightly positive end of the water molecule became aligned with the slightly negative end of the water molecule.

60

chemical reactions

involve the formation, breaking or rearrangement of chemical bonds.
- require energy to form bonds
-all chemical reactions are exergonic (release energy) or energonic (consume energy)

61

patterns of chemical reactions

chemical reactions are either anabolic (constructive) or catabolic (destructive). They include synthesis, decomposition, and exchange reaction . oxidation-reduction reactions may be considered special types of exchange (or decomposition reaction

62

synthesis reactions

smaller particles are bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules.re basis of constructive (anabolic) , activities in the body cells such as joint small molecule called amino acid into large protein molecules. ex. building blocks
A+B->AB

63

decomposition reaction

occurs when a molecule is broken down into small molecules , (catabolic)
AB->A+B

64

exchange reactions

involve both synthesis and decomposition reaction. bonds are both made and broken
AB+C->AC+B and AB+CD->AD+CB

65

oxidation reduction reaction (redox reaction)

involve in transfer of electrons

66

exergonic reaction

release of energy (catabolic)

67

endergonic reaction

energy is absorbed (anabolic)

68

energy flow in chemical reaction

bonds are energy relationship, and there is a net loss or gain of energy in every chemical reaction.

69

reversibility of chemical reaction

if reaction condition remain unchanged, all chemical reactions eventually reach a state of chemical equilibrium in with the reaction proceeds in both direction at the same rate.
all chemical reaction are theoretically reversible, but many biological reactions go in one direction

70

rate of chemical reactions

we can increase our rate of reaction increasing our temperature

71

catalyst

are substance that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically change. biological catalyst are called enzymes

72

biochemistry

is the study of chemical composition and reaction of living matter

73

organic compounds

contains carbons. usually large and are covalently bonder. (carbohydrate, fats, proteins and nucleic acid)

74

water

water is the single most abundant compound in the body (60 % -80%)

75

properties of water

it absorbs and releases heat slowly, act as universal solvent, participate in chemical reaction and cushions(protect) body organs

76

salt

ionic compounds that dissolve in water an act as electrolytes.ions play especial role in body functions. contain cation (but not include (H+))and anions(but not include OH-))

77

Acids

are protons(hydrogen ion) donors,

78

bases

are the proton acceptors. Bicarbonate ion (HCo-3) and ammonia(NH3)are important bases in the body.

79

inorganic compound

do not contain carbon like water, salt , acids and bases

80

carbohydrates

carbohydrate building blocks are monosacharides, disacharides, polysaccharides

81

Acid- base homeostasis

Ph change affect cell function and may damage living tissues. slight change in the PH can be fatal

82

Buffers

mixture of compounds that resist PH cahange

83

dehydration syntesis

is taken out the water molecule (synthesis reaction)

84

Hydrolysis

add water into 2 molecules

85

lipids

not solvent in water

86

triglycerides (type of lipid)

are neutral fats and liquid oil
-energy storage
-insulation
-protection

87

proteins

are groups of amino acids

88

globular proteins

have shapes

89

protein denaturation

-shape change with environment change
-reversible in most of the case but not all
-damage the structure
it happen when increase significantly the tempertaure or decrease the PH

90

molecules chaperones

assist in folding of proteins into their functional 3-D structure

91

enzimes

lower the activation of energy. it increase the rate of chemical reaction by decreasing the among activation energy need.

92

Nucleic acid

DNA and RNA

93

DNA

it found inside the nucleus

94

RNA

it found out side the nucleus , carried out DNA instructions for protein synthesis include messenger RNA, transferRNA, ribosome RNA

95

ATP

storage energy