Chapter 1: Organization of the Body Flashcards

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created 12 years ago by denise067
An orientation
updated 12 years ago by denise067
anatomy and physiology 1
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In what way does physiology depends on anatomy?

The operation or function of a structure is dictated (promoted or prevented) by its anatomy.
Ex: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide are exchanged across the very thin membranes of the lungs but not across the skin.


Would you be studying anatomy or physiology if you investigated how the muscles shorten? If you explored the location of the lungs in the body?

Muscle shortening is a topic of physiology. The body location of the lungs is an anatomy topic


What level of structural organization is typical of a cytologist's field of study?

Cytologists study the cellular level of organization.


What is the correct structural order for the following terms: tissue, organism, organ, cell?

The order of the structural hierarachy is cell, tissue, organ, and organism


Which organ system includes the bones and cartilages? Which includes the nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea?

Bones and cartilages are part of the skeletal system. The nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea are organs of the respiratory system.


What seperates living beings from non-living objects?

Living organisms are able to maintain their boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, reproduce, and grow. While inanimate objects may exhibit some of these properties, they do not exhibit them all.


What name is giving to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells?

Metabolism is the term that emcompasses all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body cells


Why is it necessary to be in a pressurized cabin when flying at 30,000 feet?

In flight, the cabin must be pressurized because the atmosphere is thinner in high altitudes and the amount of oxygen entering the blood under such conditions maybe insufficient to maintain life


What process allows us to adjust to either extreme heat or extreme cold?

Negative feedback mechanisms allows us to adjust to conditions outside of the normal temperature range by cause heat to be lost by the body (in hot conditions) and retained or regenerated by the body (in cold conditions)


When we begin to get dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids? Is thirst part of a negative or positive feedback control system? Defend your choice.

Thirst is part of a negative feedback control system because it prods us to drink, which ends the thirst stimilus and returns body fluids back to normal range.


Why is the control mechanism shown in Fig 1.6 called a positive feedback system? what event ends it?

This is a positive feedback mechanism because it enhances the change (formation of a platelet plug) set into motion by the stimilus (damage to the blood vessel). The response ends when the platelet plugs the hole in the blood vessel.


What is the anatomical position? Why is it important that you learn this position?

The position inwhich a person is standing erect iwth feet slightly seperated and palms facing anteriorly. Knowing the anatomical position is important because directional terms refer to the body as if it is standing in this position.


The axillary and acromial regions are both in the general area of hte shoulder. Where specifically is each located?

Axillary region is the armpit. Acromial area is the tip of the shoulder


What type of cut would seperate the brain into anterior and posterior parts?

A frontal (Coronal)section would seperate the brain into anterior and posterior parts.


Joe went to the emergency room complaining of severe pains in the lower right quadrant ofhis abdomen. What might be his problem?

He may have a appendicitis if the pain is in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen.


Of the uterus, small intestine, spinal cord, and heart, which share in the dorsal body cavity?

Of these organs, only the spinal cord is in the dorsal body cavity.


When you rub your cold hands together, the friction between them results in heat that warms your hands. Why doesn't warming friction result during movements of the heart, lungs, and digestive organs?

As mobile organs (heart, lungs, digestive organs) work, friction is greatly reduced by the presence of serous fluid. Serous fluid allows the surrounding serous membranes to glide easily over one another.