A&P2 Exam 2

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1

Which layer is found in all blood vessels?

endothelium

2

Where is the BP the lowest

venae cavae

3

What is the correct equation for measuring blood pressure?

/_\P = CO x R

4

Baroreceptors for monitoring BP are located where

carotid sinus

5

In vigorous exercise which organ DOES NOT receive an increased blood supply

brain

6

Where is blood flow rate the slowest

capillaries

7

Where is capillary hydrostatic pressure the highest

arterial end of capillary

8

Which is NOT a transport process across a capillary wall?

active transport

9

What is responsible for internal capillary osmotic pressure

dissolved proteins

10

Which is responsible for INCREASED arterial pressure

increased in blood volume

11

where does renin come from

kidney

12

the unction of aldosterone is to

increase sodium reabsorption by the kidney

13

Why does the hormone ADH do?

causes the kidney to excere less water in the urine

14

Where is atrial natriuretic peptide produce

heart

15

What factor DOES NOT increase cardiac output

increased parasympathetic activity

16

What is considered normal bp?

120/80

17

What is not a source of blood vessel resistance to flow?

heart contraction rate

18

Which blood vesself has the largest amount of CT in its wall

vein

19

which blood vessels have the largest openings (lumen)

vein

20

What kind of tissue is the tunica media

muscular tissue

21

What is ateriovenous anastomosis

a direct connection between an arteriole and a venule

22

small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are called

lymph nodes

23

which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure

pancreas

24

both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily depended on

one way valves

25

the thymus is most active during

childhood

26

lymph leaves lymph nodes via

efferent lymphatic vessels

27

Antibodies are act against foreign substance are released by

plasma cells

28

The lymphatic capillaries are

more permeable than blood capillaries

29

By secreting hormones, the thymus causes what to become immunocompetent?

lymphocytes

30

Functions of the spleen include all those below except___?

crypts that trap bacteria

31

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes

B cells produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies into the blood

32

A ring of lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling in the oral cavity mucosa is called

tonsil

33

Peyer's patches are found in the

small intestine

34

what is a bubo

an infected lymph node

35

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not

directly fight antigens

36

Particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except

lower extremities

37

Functions of the lymphatic system include

transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system

38

the tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the

lingual tonsils

39

which is NOT a normal component of lymph

red blood cells

40

What effect does age have on the size of the thymus

the thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age

41

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

42

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

43

Which of the following is not a type of T cell

antigenic

44

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the

bone marrow

45

Which of the following is NOT a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissue with connective tissue

46

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by

vasodilation

47

the system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, and destroy them is them

immune system

48

the antibody is held together by ___ bonds

disulfide

49

in clonal selection of of B cells, which substance determines which B cel will eventually be clones

antigen

50

the only T cells than can directly attract and kill other cells are the

cytotoxic cells

51

____ predominate at sites of chronic infection

macrophages

52

Which of the following is part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

phagocytes

53

B cells respond to the original antigen challenge by

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

54

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before the adaptive immune system is activated by

natural killer cells

55

which of the following is NOT specific to the adaptive immune system

it is a specific for a given organ

56

Innate immune system defenses include

phagocytosis

57

fever ____

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

58

Helpter T cells

function in the adaptive immune system activation

59

Cytotoxic T cells

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

60

Clonal selection of B cells

results in the formation of plasma cells

61

where are podocytes located

glomerulus

62

where is the nephron primary filtrate the most concentrated

bend in the loop of henle

63

the glomerulus differs from most other capillaries in the body because

it is drained by an efferent arteriole

64

the descending limb of the loop of henle

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medull

65

the functional and structural unit of the kidney is the

the nephron

66

the chief force pushing water and dissolved solutes across the golmerular filtration structure is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure)

67

the first major branch of the renal artery is

segmental

68

the mechanism of water reapsorption by renal tubule is

osmosis

69

absorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

secondary active transport

70

excretion of dilute urine requires

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

71

alcohol acts as a diuretic because it

inhibits the release of ADH

72

the function of angiotensin II is to

inhibits the release of ADH

73

the function of angiotensin II is to

contrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

74

the glomerular filtrate is similar to the blood in composition except that it does not have significant amounts of

proteins

75

the juxaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

regulating the rate of filtration formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

76

the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because

it stabilizes the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

77

which gland sits atop each kidney?

adrenal

78

the kidneys are stimulated to produce rennin

by a decrease in blood pressure

79

an increase in the permeability of cells of the cllecting tubule to water is due to

an increase in the production of ADH

80

which statement is true about urine

urine had nitrogenous wastes like urea and uric acid

81

Which IS NOT a force affecting the direction and magnitude of glomerular filtration in nephrons?

capsular colloid osmotic pressure