Nervous system

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1

what are nerves

collection of axons

2

another name for sensory

afferent

3

which direction do sensory nerves move

toward to CNS

4

another name for motor

efferent

5

which direction do motor nerves move

away from the cns

6

what are the two types of motor nerves

somatic and autonomic

7

where do somatic nerves go

away from the cns to the skeletal muscle

8

where do autonomic nerves go

away from the cns to the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands

9

what are the two autonomic nerves called

sympathetic and parasympathetic

10

what do sympathetic nerves do

increase activity

11

what do parasympathetic nerves do

decreases activity

12

how many pairs of spinal nerves are there

31

13

what is a ganglion

collection of neuron (nerve) cell bodies located outside the cns

14

what makes up the CNS

brain and spinal cord

15

the brain has how many major parts

6

16

the cerebrum is divided by a

longitudinal fissure

17

what does the longitudinal do to the cerebrum

divides it into 2 cerebral hemispheres

18

what do each hemisphere have

gyri or gyrus
fissure
sulci

19

what is a gyri or gyrus

convolution, raises area

20

what is a fissure

deep furrows

21

what is a sulci

shallow furrows

22

what are the major sulci/fissures

central sulcus
parieto-occipital fissure
lateral fissure

23

another name for central sulcus

fissure of rolando

24

another name of lateral fissure

fissure of sylvius

25

what are the five lobes of the cerebrum

frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal
olfactory

26

what does the precentral gyrus contain

primary motor cortex

27

what does the parietal gyrus contain

primary sensory cortex

28

what does the occipital contain

primary visual cortex

29

what does the temporal contain

primary auditory cortex

30

what does the olfactory contain

primary olfactory cortex

31

the two cerebral hemispheres are connected by what kind of matter

white

32

the two kinds of white mater are

corpus callosum and fornix

33

the thicker, white part of the matter is the

corpus callosum

34

the smaller thinner white matter is the

fornix

35

the cavity of the cerebrum is the

lateral ventricle

36

how many lateral ventricles are there

2

37

what are the cranial nerves originating from the cerebrum

I and II

38

what are cranial nerves I and II

olfactory and optic

39

areas that moves have a bigger or smaller presentation on the precentral gyrus

bigger

40

where is the insula

its a lobe that is deep within the brain

41

what is responsible for the communication between the cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower cns centers

cerebral white matter

42

what are the fiber types in cerebral white matter

association, commissural and projection

43

function of association fibers

connects different parts of the same hemisphere. connect adjacent gyri. bundled into tracts and connect different cortical lobes.

44

function of commissural fibers

connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres

45

function of projection fibers

tie the cortex to the rest of the nervous system and the to body receptors and effectors.

46

what are the three basic regions of the cerebral hemisphere

cerebral cortex, white matter, basal nuclei

47

location of basal nuclei

island of gray matter situation deep within the white matter

48

what is considered the executive suite

cerebral cortex

49

function of cerebral cortex

where our conscious mind is found. it enables us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, to communicate, remember, understand, and initiate voluntary movements.

50

each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with the sensory and motor functions of which side of the body

the contralateral side

51

what are the motor areas

primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, ,broca's area, and the frontal eye field

52

function of premotor cortex

helps the plan movements

53

location of brocas area

lies anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area

54

function of brocas area

special motor speech area that directs the muscles involved in speech production

55

function of frontal eye field

the cortical region controls voluntary movement of the eyes

56

where do the sensory areas of the cortex occur

parietal, insular, temporal and occipital lobes

57

function of primary somatosensory cortex

receive information form the general (somatic) sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors (position sense receptors) in the skeletal muscles, joints and tendons.

58

which area controls spatial discrimination

primary somatosensory cortex

59

what are the sensory areas

primary somatosensory cortex, somatosensory association cortex, visual areas, auditory areas,, vestibular cortex, olfactory cortex, gustatory cortex, visceral sensory area

60

function of somatosensory association

integrate sensory inputs (temperature, pressure and so forth) relayed to it via the primary somatosensory cortex to produce an understanding of a object being felt, it's size, texture and the relationship of its parts

61

what area perceives upset stomach, full bladder, etc

visceral

62

which cortex is responsible for taste

gustatory

63

which cortex if responsible for balance

vestibular

64

part of the basal nuclei

caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

65

function of basal nuclei

plays a role in cognition and emotion

66

parts of the diencephalon

epithalamus, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus

67

what contains the pineal gland

epithalamus

68

function of epithalamus

control of onset of puberty
sleep wake cycle

69

what is a cluster of nuclei that is a dumb bell shape

thalamus

70

function of thalamus

synapse of auditory, visual and other sensory impulses.
influences mood
influences body movements associated with emotions

71

what is connected to the pituitary gland

hypothalamus

72

function of hypothalamus

produces ADH, Oxytocin and other hormones that control secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
controls heart rate, movement of food down the digestive tract, blood vessel diameter.
controls swallowing and shivering
controls body temperature
controls emotions

73

what cavity is the hypothalamus located in

cavity of diencephalon in the third ventricle

74

cranial nerves originating from the diencephalon

none

75

which part of the brain has a roof and a floor

midbrain

76

what is the roof of the midbrain called

tectum

77

what does the tectum contain

four neclei bodies, each called colliculs and together called corpora quadrigemia

78

function of superior colliculus

visual reflex

79

function of inferior colliculus

hearing reflex

80

another name for the floor of the miadbrain

tegmuntum

81

what is the tegmuntum

has two trucks called cerebral peduncle passing through it

82

the cavity of the midbrain is

cerebral aquedcut

83

cranial nerves originating from the midbrain

III and IV

84

what are the nerves of III and IV

oculomotor and trochlear

85

how many parts of the cerebellum

three

86

what are the parts of the cerebellum

2 lateral cerebellar hemispheres
2 flocullonodular lobes
1 vermis

87

function of cerebellum

maintenance of posture
coordination of muscular movements

88

what is the cavity of the cerebellum

fourth ventricle

89

cranial nerves originating from the cerebellum

none

90

function of the pons

relays information from cerebrum and cerebellum
ascending and descending nerve tracts pass through it
has center for sleep
has center for respiration

91

cavity of pons

fourth ventricle

92

cranial nerves originating from the pons

V, VI, VII, and part of VIII

93

names of nerves V, VI, VII, VIII

trigeminal, abducen, facial, auditory

94

what makes up the brain stem

mid brain, pons and medulla oblongata

95

what does the medulla oblongata have

2 pyramids and 2 olives

96

description of pyramids

medial bulges that taper down-contain descending nerve tracts that cross over

97

description of olives

lateral bulges-contain nuclei of balance

98

function of medulla oblongata

ascending and descending nerve tracts pass through it
has center for respiration
has center for reflexes-vomiting, sneezing, coughing
controls blood vessel diameter
controls heart rate

99

cavity of medulla

central canal

100

cranial nerves originating from the medulla

part of VIII and all of IX, X, XI, and XII

101

nerves of VIII, IX, X, XI, AND XII

auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

102

what is the connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord

meninges

103

function of meninges

protection of brain and spinal cord

104

what are the layers of the meninges

duramater, arachnoid mater and piamter

105

outermost layer of the meninges

duramater

106

middle layer of meninges

arachnoid mater

107

innermost layer of meninges

piamater

108

which meninges layer is strongest

duramater

109

what are the tow sublayers of the duramater

periosteal and meningeal

110

where do the periosteal and meningeal separate

dural venous sinus

111

what are the spaces of the meninges

extradural, subdural, subarachnoid

112

another name for extradural

epidural

113

function of meninges

cover and protect the cns
protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
contain cerebrospinal fluid
forms partitions in the skull

114

function of the dural venous sinuses

collect venous blood from the brain and direct it into the internal jugular veins of the neck

115

where does the periosteal layer attach

the inner surface of the skull

116

what does the meningeal layer form

the true external covering of the brain and continues caudally in the vertebral canal as the spinal dura mater

117

what separates the two dural maters

dural venous sinuses

118

purpose of the dural septa

limit excessive movement of the brain within the cranium

119

what are the three dural septas

falx cerebri
falx cerebelli
tentorium cerebeli

120

a large sickle shaped fold the dips into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres. anteriorly, it attaches to the crista galli of the ethmoid bone.

falx cerebri

121

the vermis of the cerebellum

falx cerebelli

122

fold that extends into the transverse fissure between the occipital lobe of the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum

tentorium cerebelli

123

knoblike projections of the arachnoid mater that protrude superiorly through the dura mater and into the superior sagittal sinus. these absorb cerbrospinal fluid into the venous blood of the sinus

arachnoid villi

124

watery broth similar in composition to blood plasma, from which it is formed. However, it contains less protein than plasma and its ion concentrations are different

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

125

what forms the CSF

choroid plexuses

126

total amount of CSF

150ml

127

how often is CSF replaced

every 8 hours

128

what are the components of the nervous system

sensory input, integration and motor output

129

sensory receptors monitor changes to both external and internal stimuli

sensory input

130

process of interpretation of the sensory stimuli and decision of what needs to be done

integration

131

effector organ that causes a response

motor output

132

two types of cells of the nervous system

neuron and neuroglia

133

function of neuroglia

protect, nourish and insulate the neuron

134

neuroglia cells in the cns

astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, oligodendrocytes

135

Two kinds of Neuroglia in the PNS

satelite and schwann

136

most abundant neuroglia cell in CNS

astrocytes

137

types of neurons

multipoloar, bioploar, unipolar

138

most abundant type of neuron

multipolar

139

neurons especially seen in retina of eye and olfactory mucosa

biopolar

140

neuron mainly seen in the gangilon

unipolar

141

two types of neurons based on function

sensory neuron and motor interneuron

142

most abundant neuron in CNS based on function

motor interneuron