psych final

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1

in general terms, motivation can be considered

motivation can be defined as any condition that energized and directs any actions

2

one of the earliest attempts to explain motivation was based on the notion of

instincts

3

innate and complex patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain set conditions are called

instincts

4

the basic flaw associated with instinct theory is that it doesn't _____ behavior, it ____ behavior

explain, labels

5

the view that organisms learn to to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives is referred to as

state of tension

6

primary drives are

induced by internal biological needs such as food or water deprivation they do not depend on learning

7

meeting hunger and thirst needs satisfies Maslow's first need level, known as

physiological

8

Abraham Maslow asserted that people can be motivated by _______ as well as drive reduction

self actualization

9

according to cognitive theory, whether you are motivated to ask that exciting person for a date depends on

cognitions, expectancies, beliefs, and other mental processes

10

cognitive dissonance can motivate behavior by

inconsistency

11

a state or feeling that has psychological, behavioral, and cognitive components is called

emotions

12

according to Plutchik's emotion wheel, which of the following is one of the primary emotions

acceptance- disgust, fear-anger, surprise- anticipation, sadness- joy

13

Plutchik's maintains that adjacent emotions of the emotion wheel

blend to form more complex feelings

14

according to James and Lange, we become angry because we

emotional stater resulting from an organism awareness of bodily responses to a situation rather than from cognitions about that situation

15

data that show that people who are placed into the exact same physiological sate fail to experience the same emotion provide evidence against which theory of emotion

the Schachter - singer theory

16

Cannon and Bard believed that emotional arousal and behavior action occured

in the central brain

17

according to the Schachter-Singer theory emotions are the result of

behavioral and psychological reactions

18

early research on stress focused on the _____ associated with stress

psychological changes

19

the GAS consists of three stages; an alarm reaction, a resistance stage, and a/an

exhaustion

20

the fight-or-flight reaction is characterized by a high level of activity of the ____ nervous system

sympathetic

21

the stage of the GAS characterized by a state of fatigue in which body tissues begin to show signs of wear and tear and susceptibility to disease is the

exhaustion stage (3rd stage)

22

anxiety may by thought of as a general emotional response to

stress

23

the factors that contribute to stress is/are

lock of control, suddenness, ambiguity

24

when compared to Type A people, Type B people tend to be more

Type A - hard driving, competitive, hostile, time urgent, an demanding of both themselves and others
Type B- relaxed, easy going

25

personality factors linked to hypertension include tendency to

Type D personality - pissed

26

drive-reduction theory operates at which level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

physiological

27

the correct order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from lowest to highest, is

self-atuslization, esteem, belonging, safety, physiological

28

if you could operantly condition a rat to turn on a TV set in order to watch Mickey Mouse cartoons, it would illustrate that rates have ____ motives

incentive

29

during an emotional state, which of the following would indicate psychological arousal

epinephrine and hormones

30

the Cannon-Brad theory states that

emotions occur simultaneously with psychological changes rather than deriving from body changes

31

the term 'fight or flight' suggests which of the following psychological responses to stress

perceptual

32

trait theories of personality attempt to _____ personality

identify

33

the two main approaches to personality theories are

psychoanalytical, social learning

34

trait theories of personality have the primary focus or goal to

to describe and characterize personality

35

an aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior and assumed to give rise to behavioral consistency is called a

trait

36

Allport believed that the generalized and enduring traits that form the building blocks of our personalities are the ____ traits

certain traits

37

Allport's _____ traits are less generalized and far less enduring than other traits

secondary traits

38

the personality theory that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motivation and conflict to personality development is

psychoanalytic

39

Freud used the term _____ to describe his interpretation of a patient's revelations of unconscious thoughts during therapy

psychoanalysis

40

freud considered dreams

they dream it and it will influence them when their awake

41

freud believed that the governing principle of the id was the ____ principle

pleasure

42

freud believed that the ego operated on the _____ principle

pleasure

43

freud believed that the ego used _____ to protect the personality from anxiety producing thoughts and images

defense mechanisms

44

the correct order of frauds stages of psychosexual development are

the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent period, genital stage

45

fixation is

in frauds theory of psychosexual development, arrested development that results from exposure to either too little or too much gratification

46

according to jung the personal unconscious is

the part of the unconscious that is akin to freuds concept of a reservoir of all repressed thoughts and feelings

47

adler argued that an intense feeling of personal incompetance and weakness was the result of

inferiority complex

48

in humanistic theory the innate tendency to strive to realize ones potential, or to be all one can be, is termed

self actualization

49

the theoretical perspective that argues that we must focus on the uniqueness of each individual if we are to understand human personality is

humanistic perspective

50

unlike traditional behaviorists, social-learning theorists emphasize our

our thought, perspectives and feelings

51

behaviorists and social-learning theorists favor the psychological assessment technique of

experiment a lot

52

the California psychological inventory was designed to measure

populations

53

which of the following tests is considered to have good predictive validity in predicting school and job success

achievement motivation

54

personality tests which are developed with the underlying rationale based on psychoanalytic theory are called

thematic apperception

55

tests that have ambiguous stimuli that allow respondents to place their own thoughts or feeling into their responses are called

the rorschach inkblot test

56

personality psychology may best be described as the study of

individuals

57

the psychic structure that seeks to delay gratification when satisfaction might bring disapproval from others is the

pleasure principle

58

the most basic defense mechanism that underlies all other defense mechanisms is

ID

59

maria is afraid to leave her home to go shopping or even go to work; she avoids all public places. maria suffers from a disorder known as

social anxiety disorder

60

the anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, unwanted, and unshakable thoughts and?or irresistible repeated actions is

obsessive-compulsion

61

maslow proposed that if all lesser needs are met, a person would be motivated toward

self actualization

62

one main citicsim of humanistic theories is that

dont observe people so they can be credited/ non verifiable observations

63

which of the following is not an important method used to assess an individuals personality

important- behavioral observation, interviews, paper and pencil questionnaires, and projective tests

64

psychological states such as anxiety, depression, and agitation, are labeled as ____criteria for defining abnormal behavior

Fear & anxiety, General Anxiety disorder. emotional distress

65

the most widely used scheme today for classifying and diagnosing psychological throughout the world is

diagnostic and statistical manual of mental distress

66

a generalized feeling of dread and apprehension, typically accomponied by physiological reactions, is

anxiety disorder. panic disorder

67

the most common psychological disorders in the u.s. are ____ disorders

anxiety

68

freud explained phobias in terms of

displace of anxiety to an object, situation, or social function that can be avoided

69

from the biological perspective, people develop anxiety disorders as a result of

unusually responsive nervous system….heredity

70

depression is the primary symptom of which class of disorders

mood disorders…. Depressive disorders

71

a mood disorder characterized by intermittent periods of both depression and mania (highly energized behavior) is called a

bipolar

72

the data from twin, family, and adoption studies present strong evidence that ___ influences mood disorders

genetics

73

the core symptoms that are characteristics of many forms of schizophrenia include disturbances in

perceptions, thoughts, emotional expression, behavior, &speech

74

the fact that there is a decided tendency for schizophrenic disorders to run in families supports

biological perspective

75

an anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent, irrational fear of performing some specific behavior (such as talking or eating) in the presence of other people is called an

social phobia

76

a individual with ____ would most likely to recieve unnecessary medications of unnecessary surgery

somatoform disorder

77

individuals like Eve from the three faces of eve who display a number of separate personalities are suffering from

dissociative identity disorder

78

which of the following categories of symptoms is not characteristic of the mood disorders

persistent depression…anxiety

79

false perceptions that lack a sensory basis-such as hearing imaginary voices--are

hallucinations

80

the disturbances in emotional expression associated with schizophrenia are characterized

by blunted/ flat effect (no personality)

81

the fundamental assumption of psychoanalysis is that disordered behavior results from

unconscious conflicts and repressed urges

82

freud felt that interpretation of the patients resistance, transference and experiences served all of the following functions except

Enter their unconscious, search out the aniety-causing conflicts, help them gain insight or conscious awareness of repressed conflict

83

which therapy is more likely to use rapid-fire directive approach and the employ a variety of technique

rational-emotive therapy (ret)

84

systematic desensitization training has been shown to be more effective in treating ___ than ____

fear & anxiety, General Anxiety Disorder, phobic disorders

85

which therapy technique can be helpful in both extinguishing irrational fears and for establishing new, more adaptive behaviors

systematic desensitization …..modeling

86

family therapy is based on the idea that an individuals problems stem from

...

87

research has clearly demonstrated that in most cases, improvement rates for people undergoing psychotherapy

...

88

biomedical therapy is based on the assumption that

1. Behavior disorders result from biological abnormalities, 2. Physiological intervention through surgery, electric shock, or drugs will alleviate or treat significantly the symptoms of behavioral disorders

89

a surgical procedure called the lobotomy is performed by

neurosurgeons … serving the nerve tracts & connecting the prefrontal cortex to the lower brain areas that mediate emotional responses

90

which statement about psychoactive drug use in therapy is true

most common biomedical treatment for psychological disorders since 1950’s

91

a potentially serious side effect of antidepressant drugs include

tardive dyskinesia (TD)

92

the three general classes of antidepressant drugs include

tricyclics, monoamine oxide (MAO), Serotonin Reuptake….snri, ssri…. ALL

93

the basic aim of psychoanalysis can be described as to

make the unconscious conscious

94

rational- emotive therapy tends to focus on ___. cognitive behavior therapy focuses on ____

present, past…irrational beliefs negavtive self-images

95

systematic desensitization involves

training individual to relax when confronted with fear-inducing stimuli

96

family therapy involves attempting to

change maiadaptive patterns of interaction among family members

97

which of the following is not a common feature shared by almost all styles of therapy

focusing on an individuals early experiences

98

electroconvulsive therapy is most effective for the treatment of

depression…seizures

99

which of the following is not an effect motivation has on our actions

it controls instinctive behavior

100

trait theories of personality provide psychologists with

describing and characterizing personality….. specific methods for measuring or assessing basic characteristics that can be used in comparing individuals