Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 15: The Special Senses Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by cjsaslo
5,637 views
The Special Senses
updated 9 years ago by cjsaslo
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year, Graduate school, Professional
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Special Senses

• Vision
• Taste
• Smell
• Hearing
• Equilibrium

2

___% of body's sensory receptors in eye

70%

3

Accessory Structures of the Eye

– Eyebrows
– Eyelids (palpebrae)
– Conjunctiva
– Lacrimal apparatus
– Extrinsic eye muscles

4

Eyebrows

• Overlie supraorbital margins

5

the eyes are protected by the mobile _______ or _______

eyelids or palpebrae

6

Eyelids separated at

palpebral fissure

7

Eyelids meet at

medial and lateral commissures

8

At medial commissure there is a fleshy elevation called the

Lacrimal caruncle

9

The Lacrimal Caruncle contains

sebaceous (oil) and sweat glands

10

During sleep the caruncle can produce a whitish oily secretion called

sandmans eye sand

11

In most Asian peoples a vertical fold of skin called ________ commonly appears on both sides of the nose and sometimes covers the medial commissure.

epicanthic fold

12

They eyelids are thin skin cover folds supported internally by connective tissue sheets called

tarsal plates

13

The tarsal plates also anchor the ________ and the ___________ muscles that run within the eyelid

obicularis oculi
levator palpebrae superioris

14

An infected tarsal gland results in an unsightly cyst called a _________. Inflammation of any of the smaller glands is called a ________

-chalazion
-sty

15

Which eyelid is more mobile and why

The upper
because of the levator palpebrae superioris

16

Which glands are associated with the eyelids

–Tarsal (Meibomian) glands
Modified sebaceous glands
Oily secretion lubricates lid and eye
–Ciliary glands between hair follicles
Modified sweat glands

17

Conjunctiva

Transparent mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucous secretion

18

Palpebral conjunctiva

lines eyelids

19

Bulbar conjunctiva

covers white of eyes

20

Conjunctival sac

between palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva

– Where contact lens rests

21

Inflammation of the conjunctiva called

conjunctivitis

22

a conjuctival infection caused by bacteria or viruses is highly contagious

Pinkeye

23

The Lacrimal Apparatus consists of

the lacrimal gland and the ducts that drain into the nasal cavity

24

the lacrimal gland lies

in the orbit above the lateral end of the eye

25

What are Lacrimal secretion and what does it contain.

Dilute saline solution containing mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme

26

Blinking spreads tears toward the __________

medial commissure

27

Once tears reach the medial commissure, they then enter the paired_________ _________ via two tiny opening called _________ ________

Lacrimal canaliculi
lacrimal puncta

28

From the lacrimal canaliculi, the tears drain into the_______ ______ and then into the _____________ _____

lacrimal sac
nasolacrimal duct

29

finally tears empties into the nasal cavity at the

inferior nasal meatus

30

How many extrinsic eye muscles
how many rectus
how many oblique

6
4
2

31

Name the rectus muscles and the oblique muscles

Rectus:
Superior, inferior, lateral, medial

Oblique:
Superior and inferior

32

Lateral rectus

action:
Controlling CN:

Action: Moves eye Laterally
Controlling CN: VI (abducens)

33

Medial rectus

action:
Controlling CN:

action: Moves eye medially
Controlling CN: III (oculomotor)

34

Superior rectus

action:
Controlling CN:

action: Elevates eye and turns it medially
Controlling CN: III (Oculomotor)

35

Inferior Rectus

action:
Controlling CN:

action: Depresses eye and turn medially
Controlling CN: III (Oculomotor)

36

Superior Oblique

action:
Controlling CN:

action: Depresses eye and turns it laterally
Controlling CN: IV (Trochlear)

37

Inferior Oblique

action:
Controlling CN:

action: Elevates eye and turns it laterally
Controlling CN: III (oculomotor)

38

What are the three layers of the eyeball

– Fibrous
– Vascular
– Inner

39

The eyeball's internal cavity filled with fluids called________.

humors

40

What separates internal cavity into anterior and posterior segments (cavities)?

Lens

41

What is the outermost coat of the eyeball

The fibrous layer

42

What are the two different regions of the fibrous layer

-Sclera
-Cornea

43

Which is called the "white of the eye"
A. sclera
B. cornea

A. Sclera

44

Answer correctly :
Sclera forms the______
A. Opaque anterior region
B. Opaque posterior region

B. Opaque posterior region

45

What are some functions of the Sclera

anchors extrinsic eye muscles
shapes eyeball
protect

46

What helps to maintain clarity of cornea

Sodium pumps of corneal endothelium on inner face

47

How much of the fibrous layer does the cornea take up?

1/6

48

Name a function of the cornea

Bends light as it enters eye

49

Name of the layer that forms the middle coat of the eyeball

Vascular layer

50

T or F
The Vascular Layer is Pigmented

True

51

What are the Three regions of the Vascular layer

choroid,
ciliary body,
and iris

52

Choroid region

• Posterior portion of uvea
• Supplies blood to all layers of eyeball
• Brown pigment absorbs light to prevent light scattering and visual confusion

53

Anteriorly the choroid becomes the ____________

ciliary body

54

Ciliary body is a

thickened ring of tissue that encircles the lens

55

ciliary muscles

interlacing smooth muscle bundles that chiefly make up the ciliary body and control the lens shape.

56

ciliary processes

secrete the fluid that fills the cavity of the anterior segment of the eyeball

57

The ciliary zonule

extends from the ciliary process to the lens. helps hold the lens in its upright position

58

Iris

Visible colored part of the eye
most anterior portion of the vascular layer

59

Pupil

central opening that regulates amount of light entering eye

60

what muscle contracts for Close vision and bright light

sphincter pupillae

61

What muscle contracts for Distant vision and dim light

dilator pupillae

62

The innermost layer of the eyeball is the

Retina

63

The Retina originates as an

outpocketing of the brain

64

What are the two layers the Retina consists of

-Outer Pigmented Layer
-Inner neural Layer

65

Only the ____________ of the retina plays a direct role in vision

Inner neural layer

66

The outer pigmented layer act as phagocytes participating in___________ Cell renewal.

And store vitamin _____

photoreceptor

A

67

The neural layer is composed of three main types of neurons

photoreceptors
bipolar cells
ganglion cells

68

T or F
The Neural Layer is transparent

T

69

Optic Disc

where the optic nerve exits the eye

70

The optic disc is also called the blind spot because it lacks _____

photoreceptors

71

Rods

Dim light and peripheral vision
no sharp no color vision

72

cones

bright light
high resolution color vision

73

Macula lutea

• Mostly cones
• Fovea centralis
– Tiny pit in center of macula with all cones; best vision

74

What are the two sources of blood supply to the retina

– Choroid supplies outer third (photoreceptors)
– Central artery and vein of retina supply inner two-thirds
• Enter/exit eye in center of optic nerve
• Vessels visible in living person

75

Internal Chamber Posterior segment contains ________ humor

vitreous

76

Internal Chamber Anterior segment contains ________ humor

aqueous

77

Glaucoma

blocked aqueous humor

78

cataract

clouding of lens

79

Visible light spectrum range

400-700nm

80

light can be small particles or packets of energy called

photons or quanta

81

How does light move sequentially into the eye

1. cornea
2. aqueous humor
3. lens
4. vitreous humor
5. neural layer of retina
6. photoreceptors

82

During its passage into the eye, what three times is light bent

1. entering the cornea
2. entering the lens
3. leaving the lens

83

The Majority of refractory power is in the ________

cornea

84

Light passing through convex lens (as in eye) is bent so that rays converge at

focal point

85

Image formed at focal point is ________ and reversed _________

upside-down
right to left

86

transduction

The neural layer of the retina is directly involved in changing light energy to nerve impulses that the brain can interpret

87

Are our eyes best adapted for distant or close vision

distant

88

The Far point of vision

that distance beyond which no change in lens shape is needed for focusing

89

For the normal or emmetropic eye, the far point is

6m (20 feet)

90

Close vision requires eye to make active adjustments using three processes:

• Accommodation of lenses
• Constriction of pupils
• Convergence of eyeballs

91

Accommodation of lenses

– Changing lens shape to increase refraction

92

Presbyopia

loss of accommodation over age 50

93

Constriction of pupils

pupillary reflex constricts pupils to prevent most divergent light rays from entering eye

94

Convergence of eyeballs

Medial rotation of eyeballs toward object being viewed

95

Myopia

nearsightedness
– Focal point in front of retina, e.g., eyeball too long
– Corrected with a concave lens

96

Hyperopia

(farsightedness)
– Focal point behind retina, e.g., eyeball too short
– Corrected with a convex lens

97

Astigmatism

– Unequal curvatures in different parts of cornea or lens
– Corrected with cylindrically ground lenses or laser procedures

98

Light Adaptation

• Rod system turns off
• Retinal sensitivity decreases
• Cones and neurons rapidly adapt

99

Dark Adaptation

– Cones stop functioning in low-intensity light
– Rod pigments bleached; system turned off
– Rhodopsin accumulates in dark
– Transducin returns to outer segments
– Retinal sensitivity increases within 20–30 minutes
– Pupils dilate

100

The axons of the retinal ganglion cells exit the eye in the

optic nerves

101

Medial fibers of optic nerve cross at the _________

optic chiasma

102

Most fibers of optic tracts continue to __________

lateral geniculate body of thalamus

103

Fibers from thalamic neurons form optic radiation and project to ________________________________

primary visual cortex in occipital lobes

104

Other optic tract fibers send branches to midbrain, ending in ________________________________________

superior colliculi (initiating visual reflexes)

105

The receptors for smell and taste are

chemoreceptors

106

The organ of smell is called the

olfactory epithelium

107

The olfactory epithelium is located in the

roof of the nasal cavity

108

the olfactory epithelium covers the

superior nasal conchae

109

Some of what we smell is really

pain

110

the nasal cavities contain _______ and _______ receptors that respond to irritants.

pain and temperature

111

Taste buds are _________ organs

receptor

112

Most 10,0000 taste buds are on

tongue papillae

113

Taste buds are also found on tops of

fungiform papillae

114

Taste buds are found on side walls of _____ and _______

foliate and circumvallate (vallate) papillae

115

There are even a few taste buds on

-Soft palate
-cheeks
pharynx
epiglottis

116

Each flask shaped taste bud consists of 50–100 flask-shaped epithelial cells of 2 types

gustatory epithelial cells
basal epithelial cells

117

Which is the taste cell
gustatory epithelial cells
basal epithelial cells

gustatory epithelial cells

118

What are the three major areas of the ear

1. External (outer) ear – hearing only
2. Middle ear (tympanic cavity) – hearing only
3. Internal (inner) ear – hearing and equilibrium

119

External Ear

• Auricle (pinna
• External acoustic meatus (auditory canal
• Tympanic membrane (eardrum

120

Auricle (pinna)Composed of

– Helix (rim); Lobule (earlobe)
– Funnels sound waves into auditory canal

121

External acoustic meatus (auditory canal)

– Short, curved tube lined with skin bearing hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands
– Transmits sound waves to eardrum

122

Tympanic membrane (eardrum

– Boundary between external and middle ears
– Connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to sound
– Transfers sound energy to bones of middle ear

123

Middle Ear

• Epitympanic recess
• Mastoid antrum
• Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

124

Epitympanic recess

superior portion of middle ear

125

Mastoid antrum

Canal for communication with mastoid air cells

126

Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

connects middle ear to nasopharynx
– Equalizes pressure in middle ear cavity with external air pressure

127

Two Major Divisions of Internal Ear

• Bony labyrinth
• Membranous labyrinth

128

Bony labyrinth has three regions

vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea

129

Semicircular canal function

-Equilibrium
-rational angular acceleration

130

Vestibule function

-Equilibrium
-head position relative to gravity
-linear acceleration

131

cochlea function

hearing

132

What are the two fluids that conduct the sound vibrations involved in hearing and that respond to the mechanical forces occuring during changes in body position and acceleration

perilymph
endolymph

133

Sound Pressure waves move through perilymph of

scala vestibuli

134

Equilibrium information goes to reflex centers in _________

brain stem

135

Impulses travel to vestibular nuclei in __________ or ________, both of which receive other input

vestibular nuclei
cerebellum

136

What are the three modes of input for balance and orientation:

- Vestibular receptors
– Visual receptors
– Somatic receptors

137

Meniere’s Syndrome

is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low-pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss. The hearing loss is fluctuating rather than permanent,