Nervous system

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1

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

2

Meninges (3)

1. Dura mater
2. Arachnoid Mater
3. Pia mater

3

Meninges
1. Dura Mater
2. Arachnoid Mater
3. Pia Mater

1. (tough mother) most superficial layer
2. middle layer,
3. (soft mother) adheres tightly to tissues its protecting, (most deep layer)

4

Decussation

fancy term for crossing over

5

Isolateral

response goes in one side and leaves from the same side

6

Contralateral

response goes in one side and leaves from a different side

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1. dura mater 2. arachnoid mater
3. arachnoid trebeculae 4. pea mater
5. cerebral cortex 6. subdural space
7. subarachnoid space 8. perivascular space

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1. spinal nerve 2. spinal cord 3. white matter
4. ventral horn 5. gray matter 6. dorsal horn
7. dorsal root ganglion 7. ventral root

9
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1. lateral horn (preganglionic sympathetic neurons, only in segments T1 - L2)
2. dorsal horn of gray matter 3. dorsal root
4. dorsal root ganglion 5. spinal nerve
6. Dorsal primary ramus (to skin and muscles)
7. ventral primary ramus 8. sensory fiber

10
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9. postgangionic sympathetic innervation (glands, blood vessels)
10. motor axon (to skeletal muscle)
11. white ramus communicans
12. sympathetic (paravertebral) ganglion
13. Gray ramus communicans
14. ventral root
15. ventral horn (contains motor neurons)

11

crossed extension reflex

one of the spinally mediated reflexes normally present in the first 2 months of life, demonstrated by the adduction and extension of one leg when the foot of the other leg is stimulated. When present in adults, it indicates hyperactive reflexes.

12

plexuses (4)

1. cerebral plexus
2. brachial plexus
3. lumbar plexus
4. sacral plexus

13

Dermatome

an area of the skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve

14

Chicken pox
-is not....
-it will...
-this is called...

-fully eradicated when you get better.
- hang out in the spinal cord until it senses you are weak and will then come out and reinfect an area in addults.
-shingles

15
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1. epineurium 2. interfascicular epineurium
3. endoneurium 4. axon
5. schwann cell 6. perineurium

16

1. How long is the brain developing?
2. which lobe is the last to develop?
A. this lobe is known for? (3)

1. till about 25 years old
2. frontal lobe
A. decision making, personality, religiosity

17
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1. metensephalon 2. mesencephalon 3. diencephalon
4. telensephalon 5. myelencephalon 6. midbrain
7. cervical 8. flexures 9.spinal cord
10. 5 weeks

18
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1. cerebral hemisphere 2. outline of diensephalon
3. midbrain 4. cerebellum 5. pons
6. medulla oblongata 7. spinal cord 8. 13 weeks

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1. cerebral hemisphere 2. cerebellum
3. pons 4. medulla oblongata
5. spinal cord 6. 26 weeks

20
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1. cerebral hemisphere 2. diencephalon
3. cerebellum 4. brain stem
5. midbrain 6. pons 7. medulla oblongata

21

-what is the cut off for an abortion?
-why?

- 26 weeks
- the cerebral cortex is now maid and they can now feel.

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A. forebrain 1. cerebrum 2. diencephalon
B. brainstem 3. midbrain 4. pons
5. Medulla oblongata 6. cerebellum
C spinal cord

23

Cerebellum
functions (3)

1. Coordinates somatic motor function
2. Adjusts output of somatic motor centers resulting in smooth operation

24

Diencephalon
forms (3)

1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
4.epithalamus

25

Midbrain (mesencephalon)
1. location
2. function (2)

1. superior portion of the brain stem
2. A. Processes visual and auditory data
B. Maintains consciousness and alertness

26

Pons
1. location
2. functions (2)

1. middle of the brain stem
2. A. Relays information to the thalamus and cerebellum
B. Regulates subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers

27

Medulla Oblongata
1. location
2. functions (2)

1. inferior portion of the brain stem
2. A. Relays information to the thalamus and brain stem
B. Regulates visceral function

28

cerebrum
functions (3)

1. Conscious thought processes
2. Memory storage
3. Conscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions

29
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1. third ventricle 2. septum pellucidum
3. interthalamic adhesion 4. frontal lobe
5. anterior commissure 6. hypothalamus
7. optic chiasm 8. pituitary gland
9. temporal lobe 10. mammillary body
11. pons 12. medulla oblongata 13. spinal cord

30
card image

1. parietal lobe 2. corpus collosum
3. fornix 4. choroid plexus
5. occipital lobe 6. thalamus 7. pineal body/gand
8. corpora quadrigemina 9. cerebral aqueduct
10. midbrain 11. arbor vitae 12. fourth ventricle 13. choroid plexus 14. cerebellum

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1. frontal lobe 2. parietal lobe
3. temporal lobe 4. occipital lobe

32

Frontal lobe
controls (6)

1. voluntary motor functions
2. concentration
3. verbal communication
4. decision making
5. planning
6. personality

33

Parietal lobe
controls (3)

1. general sensory functions
2. understanding speech
3. formulating words

34

temporal lobe
controls (2)

1. hearing
2. smell

35

occipital lobe
controls (3)

1. conscious perception of visual stimuli
2. integration of eye focusing movements
3. correlation of visual images w/ previous visual experiences

36
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1. hypothalamus 2. pituitary
3. infundibulum 4. anterior pituitary gland
5. posterior pituitary gland

37

Divisions of the pituitary gland (2)

1. Anterior pituitary gland
2. Posterior pituitary gland

38

1. anterior pituitary grows...
2. posterior pituitary grows...

1. up (adrenohypothesis)
2. down (neurohypothysis)

39

cells and Hormones of the Anterior pituitary (1-3)

1. thyrotropic cells = thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Mammotropic cells = prolactin (PRL)
3. corticotropic cells = Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

40

cells and hormones of the anterior pituitary (4-7)

4. somatotropic cells = growth hormone (GH)
5. Gonadotropic cells = follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
6. Gonadotropic cells - Luteinizing hormone (LH)
7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

41

Hormones of the posterior piduitary

1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
2. oxytocin

42

flow of fluid in the brain and spinal cord

1. lateral ventricles 2. third ventricle
3. fourth ventricle 4. subarachnoid space in brain and spinal cord.

43

what absorbs and reabsorbs cerebrospinal fluid?

Arachnoid villi

44

what happens to fluid flow while sleeping? why?

fluid flows at a faster rate. because cells in brain shrink while sleeping

45

what does Cerebrospinal fluid contain? what happens to it when you sleep?

nutrients and wastes. it replenishes

46

what happens when you have a concussion?

1. arachnoid is damages and cant reabsorb fluid.
2. brain swells
3. if pressure cant be released brain is forced into foramen magnum and will die

47

cranial nerves (12)

1. olfactory (I) 2. optic nerve (II)
3. oculomotor (III) 4. trochlear (IV)
5. trigeminal (V) 6. abducens (VI)
7. facial nerve (VII) 8. vestibulocochlear (VIII)
9. glossopharungeal (IX) 10. vagus (X)
11. hypoglossal (XII) 12. accessory (XII)

48

how does blood get to brain?

it gets diffused from blood vessels and CSF into the brain

49

hypophyseal portal system

provides a vascular pathway from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland

50
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1. superior sagital sinus 2. transverse sinus

51

hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain

52

what is controlled by the limbic system

emotion and memory

53

the limbic system includes

1. cingulate gyrus 2. parahippocampal gyrus
3. hippocampus 4. amygdoid body
5. olfactory 6. fornix
7. anterior thalamic nuclei 8. habenular nuclei
9. septal nuclei 10. mammillary bodies

54

what is the reticular system? which does what?

activating systems. wakes you up

55

functions of:
1. olfactory
2. optic
3. oculomotor
4. trochlear

1. smell
2. vision
3. eyelid and eyeball movement
4. innervates superior oblique, turnes eye downward and laterally

56

functions of:
5. trigeminal
6. abducens
7. facial
8. vestibulocochlear

5. chewing, face + mouth touch + pain
6. turns eye laterally
7. controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears + saliva taste
8. hearing, equilibrium, sensation

57

9. glossopharyngeal
10. vagus
11. spinal accessory
12. hypoglossal

9. taste, senses carotid blood pressure
10. taste, senses aortic BP, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs
11. controls trapezius+ sternocleidomastoid, controls swallowing movements
12. controls tongue movements

58

primary sensory areas (4)

1. auditory cortex
2. somatosensory cortex
3. visual cortex
4. taste cortex

59

functions of:
1. frontal lobe (6)
2. parietal lobe (4)
3. occipital lobe (1)
4. temporal lobe (3)

1. reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
2. movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
3. visual processing
4. perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory and speech

60

pathway for hearing (

tympanic membrane-> malleus-> incus-> stapes-> oval window-> cochlea-> auditory nerve-> auditory cortex-> ornike region-> frontal lobe

61
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1. specific asscending pathway 2. cerebral cortex
3. spinal cord 4.touch 5. temperature
6. nonspecific ascending pathway 7. touch
8. temperature

62
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1. highest level 2. sensorimotor cortex
3. basal ganglia 4. thalamus
5. brainstem 6. cerebellum
7. local level (brainstem and spinal cord)
8. receptors 9. muscle fibers
10. highest level 11. middle level 12. local level

63
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1. red = sympathetic
2. blue = parasympathetic

64

1. what causes the diaphragm to go down?
2. what causes the diaphragm to go up?

1. stimulating the phrenic nerve
2. once stimulation of the phrenic nerve stops

65

pulmonary Ventilation

1. movement of air into and out of respiratory system

66

Steps of respiration (5)

1. ventilation: exchange of air b/w atmosphere and alvioli by bulk flow
2. exchange of O2 + CO2 b/w alveolar air and blood in lun capillaries by diffusion.
3. transport of O2 +CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation by bulk flow
4. exchange of O2 + CO2 b/w blood in tissue capillaries and cells in tissues by diffusion
5. cellular utilization of )2 and production of CO2

67
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1. pharyngeal tonsil 2. nasopharynx
3. uvula 4. oropharunx
5. laryngopharynx 6. esophogus
7. epiglottis

68
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1. primary bronchi
2. secondary bronchi
3. tertiary bronchi

69

1. Conducting zone:
2. respiratory zone

1. transports air, little oxygen is absorbed
2. oxygen is absorbed

70

lungs have what kind of cells?

pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

71

what does the cilia in lungs do?

transports mucus to larynx where it is swallowed and digested

72

distinctions of
1. primary bronchi
2. secondary bronchi
3. tertiary bronchi
4. terminal bronchiole (3)
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveolar sacs

1. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
2. smooth muscle begins to replace C cartilage
3. increased muscle replacing cartilage
4. nonciliated simple columnar to cuboidal epithelium, no cartilage, no goblet cells
5. epithelium begins to be squamous like
6. simple squamous epithelium, 2 types

73

Asthma

is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways.

74

nebulization

To treat with a medicated spray.

75
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1. branch of pulmonary artery
2. branch of pulmonary vein

76

what decreases surface tension in alveoli?

surfactants

77
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1. parietal pleura 2. visceral pleura
3. pericardial membranes 4. pleural cavity
5. thoracic wall 6. mediastinum
7. anterior mediastinum

78

Inspiration (7)

1. diaphragm and inspiratory intercostals contract
2. thorax expands
3. Pip becomes more subatmospheric
4. t Transpulmonary pressure
5. lungs expand
6. Palv becoms subatmospheric
7. air plows into alveoli

79

Expiration (1-4)

1. diaphragm and inspiratory intercostals stop contractin
2. chest wall recoils inward
3. Pip back toward preinspirarion value
4. transpulmonary pressure back toward preinspiration value

80

Expiration (5-8)

5. Lungs recoil toward preinspiration size
6. air in alveoli becomes compressed
7. Palv becomes greater than Patm
8. air flows out of lungs

81
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...

82

1. vital capacity
2. Title volume

1. the volume of air you can hold or expel when taking a forceful breath
2. the volume of air that you move into or out of lungs at rest, ~1/2 L for avg sized male

83

1. Barioreceptor
2. chemoreceptor

1. detect pressure change within body surfaces
2. detect chemicals/specific molecules dissolved in fluid; respond to odors and tastes in fluids

84

1. CO2 stimulates _____
2. smoking puts ____ making RBC's ____ efficient

1. chemoreceptors
2. CO2 and carbonmonoxide, less

85

alimentary canal

the tubular passage that extends from mouth to anus

86

1. what kind of muscle are sphincers made of?
2. which is not made of these?

1. smooth muscle
2. anal sphincter

87

retroperitoneal

Situated behind the peritoneum.

88

Accessory structures
1. physical (3)
2. secretory (3)

1. A. teeth
b. tongue
C. muscle
2. A. liver
B. gall bladder
C. pancreas

89

sphincters (4)

1. cardiac/esphogeal sphincter
2. pyloric sphincter
3. ileocecal valve
4. anal sphincter

90

peristalsis

the constant contraction of muscles to move things down a tube

91

1. mechanical digestion
2. chemical digestion

1. mechanical breakdown of food fromchewing and churning in stomach
2.chemical breakdown from saliva and other fluids

92

enteric nervous system

intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract

93
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1. serosa 2. submucosa 3. muscularis mucosa
4. longitudinal muscle 5. circular muscle

94

1. pepsinogen
2. intrinsic factor

1. a substance that is secreted by the stomach wall and converted into the enzyme pepsin by gastric acid.
2. protein that helps your intestines absorb vitamin B12

95

cells of the stomach (4)

1. chief cells
2. parietal cells
3. goblet cells
4. enteroendocrine cells

96

function of:
1. chief cells
2. parietal cells
3. goblet cells
4. enteroendocrine cells

1. synthesize and secrete hormones = pepsinogen (converted to pepsin)
2. secretes HCl- + intrinsic factor
3. secretes acidic mucin (mucus)
4. secrete gastrin

97

1. pepsin
2. HCl-
3. intrinsic factor
4. gastrin

1. digests + denatures proteins
2. denatures proteins
3. helps with B12 absorption
4. hormones that enters blood + stimulates chief + parietal cells to secrete + contractile muscles of gastric music

98

Accessory structures (3)

1. pancreas
2. Gall bladder
3. liver

99

functions of:
1. pancreas
2. Gal bladder
3. liver

1. secretes enzymes that help break down food
2. holds bile produced in the liver until it is needed for digesting fatty foods
3. produces bile, detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals

100

cells of the pancreas (3)

1. exocrine cells
2. endocrine cells
3. duct cells

101

function of:
1. exocrine cells
2. duct cells

1. secretes enzymes
2. secrete bicarbonate

102

1. plicae circularis
2. lacteal

1. (circular folds) help increase surface area for better absorption + act as speed bumps to slow down movement of chyme
2. lymphatic capillaries

103
card image

...

104
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1. absorptive cells 2. goblet cells
3. central lacteal 4. capillaries
5. arteriole 6. tight junctions
7. desmosome 8. mitochondria

105

vernifoem appendix

most likely a resivior for immune cells

106

functions of colon

removes water, salt, and some nutrients forming stool

107

the kidneys are covered in _1_ for _2_

1. fat
2. protection

108

kidneys have both _1_ and _2_ functions

1. endocrine
2. exocrine

109

functions of the kidney (4)

1. producing hormones
2. absorbing minerals
3. filtering blood
4. producing urine

110
card image

1. renal pelvis 2. prenal pyramid
2. cortex 4. medulla

111

kidney blood flow (11)

renal A.-> renal segmental A.-> lobar A.-> interlobar A-> arcuate A-> interlobular A-> afferent arteriole-> glomerulus-> efferent arteriole-> peritubular cappilaries

112
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1. cortical nephron
2. juxtamedullary nephron

113

structure of a nephron:
1. renal corpuscle (2)
2. renal proximal tubule
3. loop of Henle

1. A. glomerulus B. boman's space
2. A. proximal convoluted tubule
B. proximal straight tubule
3. A. descending thin limb B. ascending thin limb
C. ascending thick limp

114

structure of a nephron
4. distal convoluted tubule
5. collecting duct system (3)

4. distal convoluted tubule
5. A. collecting tubule B. cortical collecting tubule C. medullary collecting duct

115

flow through the nephron (12)

glomerulus-> bowmans space in bowmans capsule-> proximal convoluted tubule-> proximal straight tubule-> descending thin limb of Henle's loop-> ascending thin limb of Henles loop-> ascending thick limb of henles loop-> distal convoluted tubule-> connecting tubule-> cortical collecting duct-> medulary collecting duct-> renal pelvis

116

Components of renal function (3)

1. glomerular filtration
2. tubular secretion
3. tubular reabsorption

117
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podocyte

118

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

causes opening of aquaporons (water channels) which allows you to reabsorb more water

119

what does alcohol do to ADH?

it blocks it

120

renin

enzyme secreted by kidneys to increase blood sodium levels

121

ace inhibitor

a diuretic

122

mictrition

fancy word for peeing

123

atrial naturitic peptide

promotes salt and water excretion and lowers blood pressure

124

flow of urin (8)

from collecting duct-> papillary duct-> minor calyx -> majore calyx-> renal pelvis-> ureter-> urinary bladder->urethra

125

-evolutionarily we start out as__1__
-without any__2__ you will remain an __3__

1. female 2. hormones 3. nonviable female

126

1. XX=
2. XY=
3. Xo=

1. female
2. male
3. nonviable female

127

SRY segment

there are genes that differentiate you to develop testis

128

1. homologous
2. analogus

1. same embriological origin
2. same function ie. wing of a bat = wing of a bird

129
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1. lobule 2. tunica albuginea
3. tunica vaginalis

130

where is perm produced?

lobules

131

sperm/ejaculant development

1. develops in testies
2. matures in epididymus
3. travels up vas deferens
4. most ejaculant liquid comes from seminal vessical
5. this meets in the ejaculatory duct with sperm
6. out through urethra

132

inguinal canal

the most common place for a male hernea

133

conceptis

The products of conception; that is, the embryo, chorionic sac, placenta, and fetal membranes.

134
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1. spermatogenisis 2. meiosis(early spermatogenisis
3. spermatogenisis (late spermatogenisis)
4. spermatogonium 5. mitosis 6. meiosis 1
7. meiosis 2 8. spermatosoa

135
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...

136

1. acrosome in sperm
2. mitochondria in sperm

1. has enzymes that helps penetrate the ovum
2. powers the tail of sperm

137

bunches of ovum are connected by___

gap junctions

138

layers of uterus (3) and cell types

1. endometrium (epithelium)
2. myometrium (muscle)
3. perimetrium

139

cycles your uterus goes through (2)

1. ovarian cycle
2. menstrual cycle

140

ectopic pregnancy

when an ovum implants anywhere its not supposed to

141

stages of mammary glands (5)

1. prior to pregnancy, ducts w/ few alveoli exist
2. in early pregnency, alveoli grow
3. in midpregnency, alveoli enlarge and acquire lumen
4. during lactation, alveoli dilate
5. after weaning, gland regresses

142

breast cancer- depending on __1__ of breast cancer can use __2__ to treat it

1. site
2. estrogens