Reproduction Questions

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1

The period of time when secondary sexual characteristics begin to develop and the potential for sexual reproduction is reached is called [a] . The first menses is called [b] , and the permanent cessation of menses is called [c] .

Correct Answers for: a puberty
Correct Answers for: b menarche
Correct Answers for: c menopause

2

Spermatogenesis does not occur at normal core body temperature.

Correct Answer: True

3

The route of sperm from the production in the testes to the exterior of the body is: seminiferous tubules, straight tubules, rete testes, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra, external urethral orifice.

Correct Answer: True

4

Which of the following are functions of Sertoli cells? (1) protection of developing spermatogenic cells, (2) nourishment of spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperm, (3) phagocytosis of excess sperm cytoplasm as development proceeds, (4) media-tion of the effects of testosterone and FSH, (5) control of movements of spermatogenic cells and release of sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

5

Which of the following are true? (1) An erection is a sympathetic response initiated by sexual stimulation. (2) Dilation of blood vessels supplying erectile tissue results in erection. (3) Nitric oxide causes smooth muscle within erectile tissue to relax, which results in widening of blood sinuses. (4) Ejaculation is a sympathetic reflex coordinated by the sacral region of the spinal cord. (5) The purpose of the corpus cavernosa penis is to keep the spongy urethra open during ejaculation.

Correct Answer:
2 and 3

6

Which of the following are true concerning estrogens? (1) They promote development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics. (2) They help control fluid and electrolyte balance. (3) They increase protein catabolism. (4) They lower blood cholesterol. (5) In moderate levels, they inhibit the release of GnRH and the secretion of LH and FSH.

Correct Answer:
1, 4, and 5

7

Which of the following statements are correct? (1) A sperm head contains DNA and an acrosome. (2) An acrosome is a specialized lysosome that contains enzymes that enable sperm to produce the ATP needed to propel themselves out of the male reproductive tract. (3) Mitochondria in the midpiece of a sperm produce ATP for sperm motility. (4) A sperm's tail, a flagellum, propels it along its way. (5) Once ejaculated, sperm are viable and normally are able to fertilize a secondary oocyte for 5 days.

Correct Answer:
1, 3, and 4

8

Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Spermatogonia are stem cells because when they undergo mitosis, some of the daughter cells remain to serve as a reservoir of cells for future mitosis. (2) Meiosis I is a division of pairs of chromosomes resulting in daughter cells with only one member of each chromosome pair. (3) Meiosis II separates the chromatids of each chromosome. (4) Spermiogenesis involves the maturation of spermatids into sperm. (5) The process by which the seminiferous tubules produce haploid sperm is called spermatogenesis.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

9

Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Cells from the yolk sac give rise to oogonia. (2) Ova arise from the germinal epithelium of the ovary. (3) Primary oocytes enter prophase of meiosis I during fetal development but do not complete it until after puberty. (4) Once a secondary oocyte is formed, it proceeds to metaphase of meiosis II and stops at this stage. (5) The secondary oocyte resumes meiosis II and forms the ovum and a polar body only if fertilization occurs. (6) A primary oocyte gives rise to an ovum and four polar bodies.

Correct Answer:
1, 3, 4, and 5

10

Which of the following statements are correct? (1) The female reproductive cycle consists of a menstrual phase, a preovulatory phase, ovulation, and a postovulatory phase. (2) During the menstrual phase, small secondary follicles in the ovary begin to enlarge while the uterus is shedding its lining. (3) During the preovulatory phase, a dominant follicle continues to grow and begins to secrete estrogens and inhibin while the uterine lining begins to rebuild. (4) Ovulation results in the release of an ovum and the shedding of the uterine lining to nourish and support the released ovum. (5) After ovulation, a corpus luteum forms from the ruptured follicle and begins to secrete progesterone and estrogens, which it will continue to do throughout pregnancy if the egg is fertilized. (6) If pregnancy does not occur, then the corpus luteum degenerates into a scar called the corpus albicans, and the uterine lining is prepared to be shed again.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3, and 6

11

Oral contraceptives work by (1) causing a thickening of the cervical mucus, (2) blocking the uterine tubes, (3) inhibiting the release of FSH and LH, (4) preventing ovulation, (5) disrupting the plasma membranes of sperm, (6) irritating the endometrial lining so that it is inhospitable for fetal development.

Correct Answer:
1, 3, and 4

12

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

modified sudoriferous glands involved in lactation

13.
mammary glands

13

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

a small, cylindrical mass of erectile tissue and nerves in the female; homologue of the male glans penis

10.
clitoris

14

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

produce mucus in the female during sexual arousal and intercourse; homologous to the male bulbourethral glands

12.
greater vestibular glands

15

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the group of cells that nourish the developing oocyte and begin to secrete estrogens

1.
follicle

16

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

a pathway for sperm to reach the uterine tubes; the site of menstruation; the site of implantation of a fertilized ovum; the womb

5.
uterus

17

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, and inhibin

2.
corpus luteum

18

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

draw the ovum into the uterine tube

4.
fibriae

19

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the opening between the uterus and vagina

6.
cervix

20

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

muscular layer of uterus; responsible for expulsion of fetus from uterus

14.
myometrium

21

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

mucus-secreting glands in the female that are homologous to the prostate gland

11.
paraurethral glands

22

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the female copulatory organ; the birth canal

8.
vagina

23

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

passageway for the ovum to the uterus; usual site of fertilization; site of tubal ligation

3.
uterine tube

24

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

refers to the external genitals of the female

9.
vulva

25

Match the following female reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the layer of the uterine lining that is partially shed during each monthly cycle

7.
endometrium

26

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

site of sperm maturation

6.
epididymis

27

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the male copulatory organ; a passageway for ejaculation of sperm and excretion of urine

4.
penis

28

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

sperm-forming cells

1.
spermatogenic cells

29

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

produce an alkaline substance that protects sperm by neutralizing acids in the urethra

12.
bulbourethral glands

30

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

ejects sperm into the urethra just before ejaculation

8.
ejaculatory duct

31

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the supporting structure for the testes

5.
scrotum

32

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

carries the sperm from the scrotum into the abdominopelvic cavity for release by ejaculation; is cut and tied as a means of sterilization

7.
ductus deferens

33

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

the shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary systems in the male

13.
urethra

34

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder; produces secretions that contribute to sperm motility and viability

11.
prostate gland

35

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

produce testosterone

3.
Leydig cells

36

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

supporting structure that consists of the ductus deferens, testicular artery, autonomic nerves, veins that drain the testes, lymphatic vessels, and cremaster muscle

14.
spermatic cord

37

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

support and protect developing spermatogenic cells; secrete inhibin; form the blood–testis barrier

2.
Sertoli cells

38

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

secrete an alkaline fluid to help neutralize acids in the female reproductive tract; secrete fructose for use in ATP production by sperm

10.
seminal vesicles

39

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

contraction and relaxation moves testes near to or away from pelvic cavity

15.
cremaster muscle

40

Match the following male reproductive structures with their descriptions.

site of spermatogenesis

9.
seminiferous tubules

41

Match the following hormones with their actions.

relaxes the uterus by inhibiting myometrial contractions during monthly cycles; increases flexibility of the pubic symphysis during childbirth

7.
relaxin

42

Match the following hormones with their actions.

stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone in males and triggers ovulation in females

2.
LH (luteinizing hormone)

43

Match the following hormones with their actions.

inhibits production of FSH by the anterior pituitary gland

1.
inhibin

44

Match the following hormones with their actions.

posterior pituitary hormone responsible for uterine contraction and release of milk from mammary glands

10.
oxytocin

45

Match the following hormones with their actions.

stimulates male pattern of development; stimulates protein synthesis; contributes to sex drive

4.
testosterone

46

Match the following hormones with their actions.

stimulates male external genital development

12.
dihydrotestosterone

47

Match the following hormones with their actions.

maintains the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy

8.
human chorionic gonadotropin

48

Match the following hormones with their actions.

contribute to male sexual behavior, spermatogenesis, and libido

11.
androgens

49

Match the following hormones with their actions.

promotes development of female reproductive structures; lowers blood cholesterol

5.
estrogens

50

Match the following hormones with their actions.

stimulates the initial secretion of estrogens by growing follicles; promotes follicle growth

3.
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)

51

Match the following hormones with their actions.

is secreted by the corpus luteum to maintain the uterine lining during the first trimester of pregnancy

6.
progesterone

52

Match the following hormones with their actions.

anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production

9.
prolactin

53

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

the process during meiosis when portions of homologous chromosomes may be exchanged with each other

D.
crossing over

54

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

refers to cells containing one-half the chromosome number

B.
haploid

55

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

the cell produced by the union of an egg and a sperm

A.
zygote

56

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

the degeneration of oogonia before and after birth

F.
atresia

57

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

a packet of discarded nuclear material from the first or second meiotic division of the egg

E.
polar body

58

Match the following terms with their descriptions.

efers to cells containing the full chromosome number

C.
diploid