Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11 Study Guide Notecards Flashcards


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1

Astrocytes provide the defense for the

CNS

2

The ANS motor fibers conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to

smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.

3

Ependymal cells are

ciliated CNS neuroglia that plays an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid.

4

The central nervous system uses frequency of action potentials to determine the strength of a

stimulus.

5

Bipolar neurons are commonly found in the

retina of the eye

6

Acetylcholine is an

excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle.

7

The nervous system integrative function

analyzes sensory information, stores information, makes decisions.

8

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the

absolute refractory period.

9

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called an

axon

10

A voltage-gated channel

opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials.

11

An impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell via the

synapse

12

The role of acetylcholinesterase is

to destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axon endings.

13

Innervation of skeletal muscle is not a function of

the autonomic nervous system

14

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called

ganglia

15

The term central nervous system refers to

the brain and spinal cord

16

The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a

neurotransmitter.

17

A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called an

association neuron.

18

Saltatory conduction is made possible by

the myelin sheath

19

Nucleic acid is not a

chemical class of neurotransmitters

20

The synaptic cleft prevents

an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.

21

Amplitude of various sizes describes

a graded potential

22

Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters are

astrocytes.

23

Schwann cells are functionally similar to

oligodendrocytes

24

Immediately after an action potential has peaked

potassium cellular gates open

25

Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) are crucial for the development of

neural connections.

26

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with

hyperpolarization

27

excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on the dendritic membrane a single type of channel will open

permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.

28

When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a

generator potential

29

Graded potentials decrease amplitude as they move away from

the stimulus point

30

Sodium gates in the membrane can open in response to

electrical potential changes

31

A second nerve impulse cannot be generated

until the membrane potential has been reestablished.

32

How does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment?

The interior is negatively charged and contains less sodium.

33

If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon the impulse would spread

bidirectionally

34

Endorphin neurotransmitters inhibit pain and are mimicked by

morphine, heroin, and methadone.

35

Short distance depolarization describes

the excitatory postsynaptic potential