Explain why the lymphatic system is a one-way system, whereas the blood vascular system is a two-way system.
Blood vessels form a complete circuit from and to the heart. The lymphatic system lacks arteries and begins with blind-ended lymph capillaries. Thus, it is a "return" system only.
How do lymphatic vessels resemble veins?
They are thin walled and have valves.
How do lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries?
Lymph capillaries are more permeable and are blind ended; they have no "feeder" arterioles.
What is the function of the lymphatic vessels?
To pick up and return excess tissue fluid (and leaked proteins) to the blood vascular.
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What is lymph?
Leaked plasma (but contains fewer proteins); tissue fluid that has entered lymphatic vessels.
What factors are involved in the flow of lymphatic fluid?
"Milking" action of the skeletal muscles; pressure changes in the thorax.
What name is given to the terminal duct draining most of the body?
What is a cisterna chyli?
Enlarged terminus of the thoracic duct, which receives lymph form the digestive viscera.
How does the composition of lymph in the cisterna chyli differ from lymph composition in the general lymphatic stream?
Same, except that the lymph in the cisterna chyli is very fat-rich.
Which portion of the body is drained by the right lymphatic duct?
Right half of upper torso and head; right arm
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Note three areas where lymph nodes are densely clustered:
axillary region, cervical region, and inguinal region (groin)
What are the two major functions of the lymph nodes?
(1)To remove debris from the lymph and (2) provide a site for cloning and multiplication of lymphocytes.
The radical mastectomy is an operation in which a cancerous breast, surrounding tissues, and the underlying muscles of the anterior thoracic wall, plus the axillary lymph nodes, are removed. After such an operation, the arm usually swells, or becomes edematous,and is very uncomfortable--sometimes for months. Why?
The lymphatic fluid is not being drained form the area due to a disruption of lymphatic vessels and nodes.
What is the function of B cells in the immune response?
Upon antigen challenge, they clone to produce daughter cells, most of which are plasma cells that release antibodies to the blood. (Humoral response)
What is the role of T cells?
They mount cell-mediated immunity. Attack virus-infected cells, tumor cells, bacteria,etc. Also activate b cells and enhancee the migration of other WBCs into the area to help destroy antigens.
What is immunology memory?
Response that recognizes and mounts an attack on antigens previously encountered.
What is specificity?
Ability to distinguish between closely related antigens.
What is the ability to differentiate self from nonself?
Ability to recognize proteins on own tissue cells as "self" and not attack them
What is autoimmune disease?
An ability of the immune system to recognize self, resulting in attack of self cells by the immune system.
What structural characteristic ensures a slow flow of lymph through a lymph node?
There are more afferent than efferent vessels.
Why is efferent vessels desirable?
Allows time for the macrophages in the node to remove antigens and other debris, and for activation of immune cells.
What similarities in structure and function are found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils?
All are lymphoid tissue containing macrophages and lymphocytes. They are all area where exposure to antigen causes lymphocytes to proliferate and form clones.
Where is axillary nodes?
In the arm pit
Where is bone marrow?
In the femur
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Give him one of your kidneys for free! Then take him to eat seafood buffet.
Where is the cervical lymph node?
In the neck
Where is the cisterna chyli?
Mid of thorax
Where is the inguinal lymph nodes?
Above the pelvic area
Where is the lymphatic vessels?
In the legs or arms
Where is the Peyer's patches
In the illeum of the intestine.
Where is the right lymphatic duct?
Right side, under the neck and above the heart.
Where is the spleen?
Left side, under the heart.
Where is the thoracic duct?
Left side, under the neck, above the heart
Where is the thymus?
Superior to the heart
Where is the tonsils?
Behind the nose and mouth
Distinguish between antigen and antibody.
An antigen is a molecule capable of provoking an immune response. An antibody is a protein produced by plasma cells that interact with a particular antigen to form a complex.
Describe the structure of the immunoglobulin monomer, and label the diagram with the choices given in the key.
Four polypeptides chains, two "heavy" and two "light" held together by disulfide bonds to form a Y-shaped molecule. Each chain has constant (C) and variable (V) regions
Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi
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Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)?
Forms the Adam's apple:
A "lid" for the larynx:
Shaped like a signet ring:
Vocal cord attachment:
Why is it important that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
Prevents its collapse during pressure changes that occur during breathing.
Why is it important that the rings are incomplete posteriorly?
Allows a food bolus traveling down the posterior esophagus to bulge anteriorly.
What is the function of the pleural membranes?
Produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall, which keeps the lungs inflated.
Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucousa.
(1)Warms and (2)moistens incoming air
Which primary bronchi is longer?
Which bronchi is larger in diameter?
Which bronchi is more horizontal?
Trace a molecule of oxygen from the nostrils to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs:
Notrils--> Nasal cavity--> Pharynx--> Larynx--> Trachea--> Main (primary) bronchus--> Lobar/segmental bronchi--> Bronchiole--> Respiratory bronchiole--> Alveolar duct--> Aveolar sac--> Across alveolar/capillary walls--> Pulmonary blood
Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi?
Site of tonsils?
Food passageway posterior?
Covers the glottis during swallowing of food?
Contains the vocal cords?
Nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration?
Pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax?
Site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood?
Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx?
Contains opening between the vocal folds?
Increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity?
Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity?
What portion of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space?
All but the respiratory zone structures (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli)
Why is there anatomically dead space except for the respiratory zones?
Because no gas exchange occurs except in the respiratory zone, particularly in the alveoli.
What is external respiration?
Exchange gases across the respiratory membrane in the lungs.
What is internal respiration?
Exchange of respiratory gases between the blood of the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells of the body.
What is cellular respiration?
Oxygen-using cellular processes (that produce energy) with tissue cells.
What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases?
Thin walls, extremely large surface area.
Why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood?
Because the partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the alveoli, therefore, it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood.
What temporary physiology advantage is created by the substantial increase in chest circumference during forced inspiration?
Increases the thoracic volume more; therefore,, creates a greater negative internal pressure, causing the gases to rush in quickly. Also, more "fresh" air reaches the alveoli.
The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal breathing movements. What would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound?
Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.
What must be done to treat a collapse lung medically?
Air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed.
Which of the respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration?
Which is heard primarily during inspiration?
Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration:
Volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration:
Volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration:
Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration:
Volume of air corresponding TV + IRV + ERV:
Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect?
Chronic bronchitis: decrease the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production
Emphysema: decrease the amount of air that can be exhaled (check-valve effect)
Does increase in blood CO2 increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?
Does decrease in O2 increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?
Does increase in blood pH increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?
Does decrease in blood pH increase or decrease the respiratory rate and depth?
Where are the sensory receptors to changes in blood pressure located?
Aortic arch and carotid sinus
Which, if any, of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely be increased in a person who is cardiovascularly fit, such as a runner or a swimmer?
VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be increased
Which, if any, of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely be decreased in a person who has smoked a lot for over twenty years?
VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be reduced
When blood CO2 levels increase, does the pH increase or decrease?
A molecule or molecule system that resists changes to pH
What buffer system operates in blood plasma?
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
What role does exhalation of carbon dioxide play in maintaining relatively constant blood pH?
CO2 leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents an accumulation of carbonic acid.
Structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior wall?
Fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption?
Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine?
Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine?
Regions that break down foodstuff's mechanically?
Oral cavity and Stomach
Mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing?
Conduit for both air and food?
Three structures continuous with and representing modification of the peritoneum?
Greater omentum, Lesser omentum, Mesentery
The "gullet"; no digestion/absorption function?
Folds of the gastric mucosa?
Pocketlike sacs of the large intestine?
Projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell?
Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines?
Primary region of food and water absorption?
Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
Absorbs water and forms feces?
Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks?
Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum?
Initiates protein digestion?
Structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach?
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Organ immediately distal to the stomach?
Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum?
Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity?
Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass?
Serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall?
Principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microorganisms?
Region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body?
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Bone-supported anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity?
Produce mucus;found in the submucosa of the small intestine?
Produce a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth?
Produce many enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted into the duodenum?
produce bile that it secretes into the duodenum via the bile duct?
Produce HCI and pepsinogen?
Found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produce intestinal juice
Which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous?
What is the role of the gallbladder?
To store and concentrate bile made by the liver
Name three structures always found in the portal triad regions of the liver.
(1)Branch of the bile duct
(2)Branch of hepatic artery
(3)Branch of hepatic portal vein
Where would you expect to find the stellate macrophages of the liver?
Lining the sinusoids;Phagocytosis of debris and worn-out blood cells
Why is liver so dark red in the living animal?
Because its a blood reservoir
The pancreas has two major populations of secretory cells--those in the islets and the acinar cells. Which population serves the digestive process?
Substance on which a catalyst works?
Biologic catalyst; protein in nature
Increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product
Provides a standard of comparison for test results?
List the three characteristics of enzymes
(1)Specificity(act on one or a small number of substrates)
The enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolases. What does this mean?
Hydrolases break down organic food molecules by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits of monomers
Salivary amylase: Organ producing it? Site of action? Substrates? Optimal pH?
Salivary glands; Oral cavity; Starch; pH 6.7-7.0
Trypsin: Organ producing it? Site of action? Substrates? Optimal pH?
Pancreas; Small intestine; Proteins; pH 8.0
Lipase(pancreatic): Organ producing it? Site of action? Substrates? Optimal pH?
Pancreas; Small intestine; Fats; pH 7.4-8.0
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End product of digestion for protein?
End product of digestion for fats?
End product of digestion for carbohydrates?