Integumentary System

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1

What is the largest organ of the body

skin

2

what is the surface area of skin in an adult

2 square meters

3

what are the five things that make up the integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, smooth muscle of skin, glands of skin

4

what are the function of the skin

protection, excretion, temperature regulation, production of vitamin d, sensation, prevention of dehydration, storage of fat

5

what does the skin protect from

microorganisms, chemicals, ultraviolet light, injury

6

what does the skin excrete

sweat and oil

7

what does sweat consists of

excess water and waste

8

how does temperature regulation happen

insulation, sweating, and vasoconstriction/vasodilation

9

what tissue does the job of insulation

fat-adipose tissue

10

what kind of sensation does the skin feel

temperature, touch, pain

11

what are the layers of the skin

epidermis, dermis and hypodermis

12

the outermost layer of the skin is called

the epidermis

13

Name the five stratas of the epidermis

stratum basale, stratum spinsoum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

14

what is the deepest layer of the strata

stratum basale (stratum germinativum)

15

which stratum is present only in thick skin

stratum lucidum

16

which stratum is the top layers of dead cells

statum coreneum

17

each stratum consists of many layers of cell
true/false

true

18

what kind of tissue is the epidermis

stratified squamous non-ciliated epithelium

19

what are the four types of cells of the epidermis

keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans, merkel

20

what do melanocytes do

produce a pigment called melanin

21

what does melanin do

impart skin color

22

what is melanin dependent on

exposure to sunlight, race and ethnicity, family history and genetics, hormones, pregnancy

23

which cells produce melanin

melanocytes

24

which cells impart skin color

melanin

25

which cells help in immune function

Langerhans

26

which cells are responsible for perception of sensation

merkel

27

where are merkel cells located

epidermis

28

where are Langerhans cell located

epidermis

29

where are melanocytes located

epidermis

30

which layer of skin does not have a blood supply

epidermis

31

how does the epidermis receive oxygen and nutrition

by the process of osmosis and diffusion.

32

what type of cells produce and store keratin

keratinocytes

33

where are keratinocytes located

epidermis

34

skin layer made of up connective tissue

connective tissue

35

which skin layer has a rich supply of nerves, blood vessels and lymphatics

dermis

36

what are the two layer of the dermis

papillary and reticular

37

what is the outer layer of the dermis called

papillary

38

what kind of tissue is the papillary layer made from

connective

39

which layer indents into the epidermis leading to dermal papillae

papillary layer

40

what helps to form prints

dermal papillae

41

what areas of the body leave a good print

fingertips, palms, soles

42

what is the deepest layer of the dermis called

reticular layer

43

what kind of tissue does the reticular tissue contain

connective tissue

44

which dermis layer has an abundance of collagen and elastic fiber

reticular layer

45

which dermis layer is responsible for the sagging and wrinkling of skin

reticular layer

46

what is the deepest layer of the skin

hypodermis

47

what's another name for the hypodermis

subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia

48

which skin layer contains 50 percent body fat

hypodermis

49

which layers helps to anchor skin to the deeper tissue

hypodermis

50

name the effects of aging on the skin

blood flow to skin decreases
skin becomes thinner
loss of subcutaneous tissue (becomes thinner)
decrease of collagen and elastic fiber
sagging of skin
localized increase in melanocytes activity which lead to age spots

51

what is another name for hair

pili

52

where is hair produced

in the hair follicles

53

name the three parts of the hair

shaft-part we can see
root-just below the skin
bulb-deepest part

54

which tow parts of the hair are enclosed in the hair follices

lower part of the root and the bulb

55

What are the three concentric layers of keratinized cells

medulla, cortex, cuticle

56

central core, large cells with air spaces, contains soft keratin, absent in fine hairs

medulla

57

surronds the medulla
consists of squamous cells

cortex

58

outmost layers
single layer of squamous cells

cuticle

59

What is the average rate of hair growth per day

.3 mm

60

what is the type of hair that a baby is born with

lanugo

61

describe lanugo

fine, short, non-pigmented

62

what hair at birth turns into terminal hair

scalp, eyebrows and eye lashes

63

what is the hair called that is thick long and pigmented

terminal

64

at the birth the hair that is not terminal hair will turn into ______________

vellus hair

65

which hair is fine, medium and may or may not be pigmented

vellus hair

66

at puberty the vellus hair changes into _______ and forms on the _________

terminal and forms on the pubic, axillary, facial and body

67

what do people with red hair have a lot in their hair

iron

68

what do nails consist of

epidermis with a lot of hard keratin

69

what is the average rate of hair growth

.5mm/day

70

what actually forms the nail

the nail bed

71

what muscle contracts in response to cold or fright and leads to goose bumps

arrector pili

72

where is the arrector pili located

dermis

73

what are the three four glands in the skin

sweat, eccrine, apocrine, sebaceous

74

what is another name for the sweat glands

sudoriferous glands

75

which gland is more numerous and present all over the body

eccrine

76

which gland is in the palms, sole and forehead

eccrine

77

simple coil tubular gland

eccrine

78

which gland lies in the dermis

eccrine

79

what is sweat made of

water, nacl, vit C, waste (urea, uric acid, ammonia)

80

what is the approximate number of apocrine glands in our bodies

2000

81

where are the apocrine glands located

axillary and anogenital area

82

what gland produces sweat that contains a high amount of proteins and fat (more thick or viscos)

apocrine

83

which sweat gland leads to body odor

apocrine

84

whats another name for the oil glands

sebaceous glands

85

what are the places the sebaceous glands are not located

palms and soles

86

which glands are simple branched alveolar glands

sebaceous

87

which glands produce sebum

sebaceous

88

which glands contain a fatty substances

sebaceous

89

where do sebaceous glands secrete their fatty substance onto the skin

the hair follicle or directly onto the skin

90

what is the function of sebum

lubricate the skin
antiseptic effect

91

where are ceruminous glands located

external auditory meatus

92

what do ceruminous glands produce

cerumen (earwax)

93

which glands produce milk

mammary glands

94

which gland is part of the sweat gland

mammary

95

ceruminous and mammary glands are what kind of glands

apocrine