Digestion Questions Flashcards


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1

The end-products of chemical digestion of carbohydrates are [a] , of proteins are [b], of lipids are [c] and [d], and of nucleic acids are [e], [f], and [g].

Correct Answers for: a monosaccharides
Correct Answers for: b amino acids
Correct Answers for: c monoglycerides
Correct Answers for: d fatty acids
Correct Answers for: e pentoses
Correct Answers for: f phosphates
Correct Answers for: g nitrogenous bases

2

The end-products of chemical digestion of carbohydrates are

monosaccharides

3

The end-products of chemical digestion of proteins are

amino acids

4

The end-products of chemical digestion of lipids are

monoglycerides and fatty acids

5

The end-products of chemical digestion of nucleic acids are

pentoses, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases

6

List the mechanisms of absorption of materials in the small intestine: [a], [b], [c], and [d].

Correct Answers:
a. diffusion
b. facilitated diffusion
c. osmosis
d. active transport

7

The soft palate, uvula, and epiglottis prevent swallowed foods and liquids from entering the respiratory passages.

Correct Answer: True

8

The coordinated contractions and relaxations of the muscularis which propels materials through the GI tract is known as peristalsis.

Correct Answer: True

9

Which of the following are mismatched?

motility: mechanical processes that break apart ingested food into small molecules

10

Which of the following are true concerning the peritoneum? (1) The kidneys and pancreas are retroperitoneal. (2) The greater omentum is the largest of the peritoneal folds. (3) The lesser omentum binds the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. (4) The falciform ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm. (5) The mesentery is associated with the small intestine.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 4, and 5

11

When a surgeon makes an incision in the small intestine, in what order would the physician encounter these structures? (1) epithelium, (2) submucosa, (3) serosa, (4) muscularis, (5) lamina propria, (6) muscularis mucosae.

Correct Answer:
3, 4, 2, 6, 5, 1
smsmle

12

Which of the following are functions of the liver? (1) carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, (2) nucleic acid metabolism, (3) excretion of bilirubin, (4) synthesis of bile salts, (5) activation of vitamin D.

Correct Answer:
1, 3, 4, and 5

13

Which of the following statements regarding the regulation of gastric secretion and motility are true? (1) The sight, smell, taste, or thought of food can initiate the cephalic phase of gastric activity. (2) The gastric phase begins when food enters the small intestine. (3) Once activated, stretch receptors and chemoreceptors in the stomach trigger the flow of gastric juice and peristalsis. (4) The intestinal phase reflexes inhibit gastric activity. (5) The enterogastric reflex stimulates gastric emptying.

Correct Answer:
1, 3, and 4

14

Which of the following are true? (1) Segmentations in the small intestine help propel chyme through the intestinal tract. (2) The migrating motility complex is a type of peristalsis in the small intestine. (3) The large surface area for absorption in the small intestine is due to the presence of circular folds, villi, and microvilli. (4) The mucus-producing cells of the small intestine are Paneth cells. (5) Most long-chain fatty acid and monoglyceride absorption in the small intestine requires the presence of bile salts.

Correct Answer:
2, 3, and 5

15

The release of feces from the large intestine is dependent on (1) stretching of the rectal walls, (2) voluntary relaxation of the external anal sphincter, (3) involuntary contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, (4) activity of the intestinal bacteria, (5) sympathetic stimulation of the internal sphincter.

Correct Answer:
1 and 2

16

Which of the following is not true concerning the liver?

Correct Answer:
The left hepatic duct joins the cystic duct from the gallbladder

17

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

collapsed, muscular tube involved in deglutition and peristalsis

esophagus

18

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

coiled tube attached to the cecum

appendix

19

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

contains duodenal glands in the submucosa

duodenum

20

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

produces and secretes bile

liver

21

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

contains aggregated lymphatic follicles in the submucosa

ileum

22

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

responsible for ingestion, mastication, and deglutition

mouth

23

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

responsible for churning, peristalsis, storage, and chemical digestion with the enzyme pepsin

stomach

24

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

storage area for bile

gallbladder

25

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

contain acini that release juices containing several digestive enzymes for protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid digestion and sodium bicarbonate to buffer stomach acid

pancreas

26

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

composed of enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity; used in mastication

teeth

27

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

passageway for food, fluid, and air; involved in deglutition

pharynx

28

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

forms a semisolid waste material through haustral churning and peristalsis

colon

29

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

forces the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing; places food in contact with the teeth

tongue

30

Match the following structures of the digestive system with their descriptions

produce a fluid in the mouth that helps cleanse the mouth and teeth and that lubricates, dissolves, and begins the chemical breakdown of food

salivary glands

31

Match the following enzymes with their functions

an activating brush-border enzyme that splits off part of the trypsinogen molecule to form trypsin, a protease

enterokinase

32

Match the following enzymes with their functions

an enzyme that initiates carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

salivary amylase

33

Match the following enzymes with their functions

the principal triglyceride-digesting enzyme in adults

pancreatic lipase

34

Match the following enzymes with their functions

stimulates secretion of gastric juices and promotes gastric emptying

gastrin

35

Match the following enzymes with their functions

secreted by chief cells in the stomach; a proteolytic enzyme

pepsin

36

Match the following enzymes with their functions

stimulates the flow of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonates; decreases gastric secretions

secretin

37

Match the following enzymes with their functions

a nonenzymatic fat-emulsifying agent

bile

38

Match the following enzymes with their functions

causes contraction of the gallbladder and stimulates the production of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes

cholecystokinin (CCK)

39

Match the following enzymes with their functions

inhibits gastrin release

somatostatin

40

Match the following enzymes with their functions

stimulates secretion of ions and water by the intestines and inhibits gastric acid secretion

vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

41

Match the following enzymes with their functions

secreted by glands in the tongue; begins breakdown of triglycerides in the stomach

lingual lipase

42

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

microvilli of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption; also contain some digestive enzymes

brush border

43

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

finger-like projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area for digestion and absorption

villi

44

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor in the stomach

parietal cells

45

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

secrete lysozyme; help regulate microbial population in the intestines

paneth cells

46

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

stomach enteroendocrine cells that secrete gastrin

G cells

47

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

longitudinal muscular bands in the large intestine; tonic contractions produce haustra

teniae coli

48

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

lymphatic capillary used for chylomicron absorption in the small intestine

lacteal

49

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

groups of lymphatic nodules in the small intestine

Peyer's patches

50

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

controls the GI tract motility and secretions of GI tract organs

enteric nervous system

51

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

large mucosal folds in the stomach

rugae

52

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase in the stomach

Chief cells

53

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

permanent ridges in the mucosa of the small intestine; enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing chyme to spiral rather than move in a straight line

circular folds

54

Match the following digestive cells and structures to their descriptions

phagocytic cells of the liver; destroy worn-out white blood cells and red blood cells, bacteria, and other foreign matter in the blood draining the GI tract

stellate reticuloendothelial cells

55

secondary option for terms

used in mastication

teeth

56

secondary option for terms

involved in deglutition

pharynx

57

secondary option for terms

places food in contact with the teeth

tongue

58

secondary option for terms

a proteolytic enzyme

pepsin

59

secondary option for terms

decreases gastric secretions

secretin

60

secondary option for terms

begins breakdown of triglycerides in the stomach

lingual lipase

61

secondary option for terms

also contain some digestive enzymes

brush border

62

secondary option for terms

help regulate microbial population in the intestines

paneth cells

63

secondary option for terms

tonic contractions produce haustra

teniae coli

64

secondary option for terms

enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing chyme to spiral rather than move in a straight line

circular folds

65

secondary option for terms

destroy worn-out white blood cells and red blood cells, bacteria, and other foreign matter in the blood draining the GI tract

stellate reticuloendothelial cells

66

secondary option

Which of the following are FALSE concerning the peritoneum? (1) The kidneys and pancreas are retroperitoneal. (2) The greater omentum is the largest of the peritoneal folds. (3) The lesser omentum binds the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. (4) The falciform ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm. (5) The mesentery is associated with the small intestine.

(3) The lesser omentum binds the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.

67

secondary option

Which of the following are NOT functions of the liver? (1) carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, (2) nucleic acid metabolism, (3) excretion of bilirubin, (4) synthesis of bile salts, (5) activation of vitamin D.

(2) nucleic acid metabolism

68

secondary option

Which of the following statements regarding the regulation of gastric secretion and motility are NOT true? (1) The sight, smell, taste, or thought of food can initiate the cephalic phase of gastric activity. (2) The gastric phase begins when food enters the small intestine. (3) Once activated, stretch receptors and chemoreceptors in the stomach trigger the flow of gastric juice and peristalsis. (4) The intestinal phase reflexes inhibit gastric activity. (5) The enterogastric reflex stimulates gastric emptying.

2 and 5

69

secondary option

Which of the following are true? (1) Segmentations in the small intestine help propel chyme through the intestinal tract. (2) The migrating motility complex is a type of peristalsis in the small intestine. (3) The large surface area for absorption in the small intestine is due to the presence of circular folds, villi, and microvilli. (4) The mucus-producing cells of the small intestine are Paneth cells. (5) Most long-chain fatty acid and monoglyceride absorption in the small intestine requires the presence of bile salts.

1 and 4

70

secondary option

The release of feces from the large intestine is NOT dependent on (1) stretching of the rectal walls, (2) voluntary relaxation of the external anal sphincter, (3) involuntary contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, (4) activity of the intestinal bacteria, (5) sympathetic stimulation of the internal sphincter.

3, 4, and 5