Human Anatomy & Physiology: Ch. 2 Chemistry Comes Alive Flashcards


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1

What is matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

2

What is all matter composed of

elements

3

What are elements

elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances through ordinary chemical reactions

4

What is each element composed of

atoms

5

What is an atom

smallest piece of the element that has the same physical and chemical properties of the element

6

where are protons located

nucleus

7

where are neutrons located

nucleus

8

where are electrons located

orbitals

9

what is the charge of the proton

positive

10

what is the charge of the neutron

neutral

11

what is the charge of the electron

negative

12

are atoms are neutral

yes

13

how many electrons does the first orbit hold

2

14

how many electrons does the 2nd and so forth orbits hold

8

15

what is the atomic number

equal to the number of protons

16

what is the mass number

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

17

What happens to electrons during an ionic bond

electrons are transfered

18

what results from the formation of ions (charge)

ionic bond

19

what is a positive ion called

cation

20

what is a negative ion called

anion

21

what happens to electrons during a covalent bond

the electrons are shared

22

what kind of sharing happens during a polar covalent bond

unequal sharing

23

what kind of sharing happens in a nonpolar covalent bond

equal sharing

24

where do hydrogen bonds occur

in polar covalent bonds

25

what is a hydrogen bond

it is a weak bond between atoms of other molecules

26

When do chemical reactions occur

when chemical bonds are formed, broken or rearranged

27

Name the three types of chemical reactions

synthesis, decomposition, and exchange

28

All synthesis reactions in the body are referred to as

anabolic

29

A+B=AB

synthesis reaction

30

What is the other name for a breakdown reactions

decomposition reactions

31

AB=A+B

decomposition reaction

32

decomposition reactions are referred to as

catabolic reactions

33

What reactions involves bonds being made and broken

exchange reactions

34

AB+CD=AD=CB

exchange reaction

35

reactions that release energy are called

exergonic

36

reactions that absorb energy are called

endergonic

37

reactions are classified based on what

whether energy is used or released

38

reactions can also be classified based on

if water is used up or released

39

AB=CD+H2O

dehydration reaction

40

AB+H2O=CD

hydrolysis

41

reactions can also be classified as

reversible and nonreversible

42

What affects the rate of the chemical reaction

temperature, concentration, particle size, and catalyst

43

what does the ph scale measure

the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

44

what is ph 7 considered

neutral

45

what is ph <7 considered

acid

46

what is a ph >7 considered

alkaline (base)

47

The higher the hydrogen ion concentration is means the solution is

more acidic

48

the three things that keep the blood at its proper level are

respiratory system, renal system and a buffer

49

What is energy

the capacity to do work

50

what are two forms of energy

potential and kinetic

51

what is potential energy

energy stored that could do work but is not doing it

52

what is kinetic energy

energy that is actually doing work

53

What are the four types of energy

electrical, electromagnetic, chemical and heat

54

what are organic compounds

compounds that contain carbon except, CO AND CO2

55

What is the basic building block of carbohydrates

monosaccharide

56

what are the three monosaccharides of importance

glucose, fructose, and galactose C6H12O6

57

What are two monosaccharides joined together

disaccharide

58

what is glucose +fructose

sucrose

59

what is glucose + galactose

lactose

60

what is glucose+glucose

maltose

61

Which polysaccharides are not digestible

cellulose and hemicellulose/fiber

62

which polysaccharides are digestible

glycogen (animals)and starch (plants)

63

What are the roles of carbohydrates in the body

provide energy, store energy, form cell structure provides bulk to the feces

64

how many calories are in 1 gm of carbohydrate

4

65

carbohydrates store energy in the form of

glycogen

66

what are the building blocks of protein

amino acids

67

how many different types of proteins are there

20

68

how many amino acids need to be joined together to be called a protein

4

69

protein structure:primary
due to
results in

peptide bond
sequence of AA

70

protein structure:secondary
due to
results in

hydrogen bond
coiling of protein

71

protein structure: tertiary
due to
results in

sulfur bond
further coiling of protein

72

protein structure:quaternary
due to
results in

orientation of subunits
function of protein

73

What role do protein play in the body

provides calories,stores calories, help to fight infection, carry oxygen, makes skin and hair tough, skin flexible and taut, digest food, hormones (except reproductive ones)

74

what does lipids consist of

fats, phospholipids, steroids (cholesterol)

75

what are the basic building blocks of lipids

glycerol and fatty acids

76

1G+1FA=

Monoglyceride

77

1G+2FA=

Diglyceride

78

1G+3FA=

Triglyceride

79

what is the worst kind of fat

saturated fat

80

C-C-C-C-C-C

saturated fat

81

C=C-C-C-C-C

monounsaturated

82

C=C=C-C-C-C

polyunsaturated

83

what are the roles of fat in the body

provides calories, stores energy around organs, helps in the absorption of soluble vitamins A,D,E,K, reproductive hormones

84

how many calories in 1gm of fat

9

85

what are the two classes of nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

86

what are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids

nucleotides

87

each nucleotide consist of

sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base

88

what sugar does RNA have

ribose

89

what sugar does DNA have

deoxyribose

90

Name the nitrogenous bases

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil

91

which nitrogenous base is not in RNA

thymine

92

which nitrogenous base is not in DNA

uracil

93

A double helix structure is called the

DNA

94

a single stranded molecule is called the

RNA

95

adenine always pairs with either

T or U

96

Guanine always pairs with

C

97

Function of ATP

store energy, sources of immediate energy

98

what is ATP made of

sugar (ribose), phosphate, nitrogenous base (adenine)

99

where is ATP stored

between the second and third phosphate molecule