Bio. 121 - review for test 1

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Questions from the first 3 quizzes
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1

Which of the following properties or processes do we associate with living things?
A)evolutionary adaptations
B)energy processing
C)responding to the environment
D)Growth and reproduction
E)all of the above

E)all of the above

2

Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex?
A)organelle, tissue, biosphere, ecosystem, population, organism
B)cell, community, population, organ system, molecule, organelle
C)organism, community, biosphere, molecule, tissue, organ
D)ecosystem, cell, population, tissue, organism, organ system
E)molecule, cell, organ system, population, ecosystem, biosphere

E)molecule, cell, organ system, population, ecosystem, biosphere

3

What is a localized group of organism that belong to the same species?
A)biosystem
B)community
C)population
D)ecosystem
E)organ system

C)population

4

A maple leaf is at which level in the hierarchy of biological organization?
A)tissue
B)cell
C)organelle
D)organ
E)organ system

D)organ

5

Which of these is an example of an organelle?
A)chloroplast
B)muscle
C)epidermis
D)intestine
E)maple leaf

A)chloroplast

6

Plants convert the energy of sunlight into...
A)the energy of motion
B)carbon dioxide and water
C)the potential energy of chemical bonds
D)minerals
E)kinetic energy

C)the potential energy of chemical bonds

7

As a result of photosynthesis, plants release _____ into the atmosphere?
A)methane
B)carbon dioxide
C)water
D)minerals
E)oxygen

E)oxygen

8

Which of the following is the main source of energy for producers such as plants and other photosynthetic organisms?
A)sunlight or solar energy
B)carbon dioxide or kinetic energy
C)heat or thermal energy
D)chemicals or chemical energy
E)both B and D

A)sunlight or solar energy

9

The dynamics of any ecosystem include the following major processes:
A)the flow of energy from sunlight to producers
B)the flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then consumers
C)the recycling of chemical nutrients
D)the flow of energy to producers and the recycling of nutrients
E)the flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers, and the recycling of chemical nutrients

E)the flow of energy from sunlight to producers and then to consumers, and the recycling of chemical nutrients.

10

The lowest level of biological organization that can perform all the activities required for life is the...
A)organelle-for example, a chloroplast
B)cell-for example, a skin cell
C)tissue-for example, nervous tissue
D)organ system-for example, the reproductive system
E)organism-for example, an amoeba, dog, human, or maple tree.

B)cell-for example, a skin cell

11

Which of the following is true regarding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
A)each deoxyribonucleic acid molecule is composed of two long chains or nucleotides arranged in a double helix
B)Genes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid
C)DNA is composed of chemical building blocks called nucleotides
D)only A and C are correct
E)A, B, and C are correct

E)A, B, and C or correct

12

Which of the following types of cells utilize DNA as their genetic material?
A)animal
B)plant
C)archaea
D)A and B only
E)A, B, and C

E)A, B and C

13

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is not correct?
A)prokaryotic cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus
B)prokaryotic cells contain small membranes-enclosed organelles
C)eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus
D)DNA is present in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
E)DNA is present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

B)prokaryotic cells contain small membrane-enclosed organelles

14

There are approximately ________ identified and named species.
A)1,800
B)180,000
C)1,800,000
D)18,000,000
E)180,000,000

C)1,800,000

15

What are the two classifications of prokaryotes?
A)domain bacteria and domain eukarya
B)domain archaea and kingdom monera
C)domain eukarya and kingdom monera
D)domain bacteria and kingdom monera
E)domain bacteria and domain archaea

E)domain bacteria and domain archaea

16

Two species belonging to the same genus must also belong to the same...
A)kingdom
B)phylum
C)class
D)order
E)all of the above

E)all of the above

17

A maple tree is classified into domain_____and kingdom______.
A)eukarya; animalia
B)eukarya; fungi
C)eukarya; plantae
D)eukarya; protista
E)bacteria; archaea

C)eukarya; plantae

18

Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
A)the ubiquitous use of catalysts by living systems
B)the universality of the genetic code
C)the structure of the nucleus
D)the structure of the cilia
E)the structure of the chloroplasts

B)the universality of the genetic code

19

Which of the following is (are) rare true of natural selection?
A)requires genetic variation
B)results in descent with modification
C)involves differential reproductive success
D)B and C only
E)A, B, and C

E)A, B, and C

20

Collecting data based on observation is an example of _____; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of _________ reasoning.
A)hypothesis-based science; inductive
B)the process of science; deductive
C)discovery science; inductive
D)descriptive science; deductive
E)hypothesis-based science; deductive

C) discovery science; inductive

21

About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
A)carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
B)carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
C)oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
D)carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
E)carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium

D)carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

22

Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required by humans and other vertebrates?
A)nitrogen
B)calcium
C)iodine
D)sodium
E)phosphorus

C)iodine

23

Which of the following statements is false?
A)atoms of the various elements differ in their number of subatomic particles.
B)all atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons in their nuclei
C)the neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom are almost identical in mass; each has a mass of about 1 dalton
D)an atom is the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of the element
E)proton and electrons are electrically charged particles. Protons have one unit of negative charge, and electrons have one unit of positive charge.

E)protons and electrons are electrically charged particles. Protons have one unit of negative charge, and electrons have one unit of positive charge.

24

The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the number of _____ in an atom of that element.
A)protons and neutrons
B)energy levels
C)protons and electrons
D)neutrons and electrons
E)isotopes

A)protons and neutrons

25

What is the approximate atomic mass of an atom with 16 neutrons, 15 protons, and 15 electrons?
A)15 daltons
B)16 daltons
C)30 daltons
D)31 daltons
E)46 daltons

D) 31 daltons

26

Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have...
A)20 protons
B)40 electrons
C)40 neutrons
D)A and B only
E)A, B, and C

A)20 protons

27

Different atomic forms of an element contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. What are these different atomic forms called?
A)ions
B)isotopes
C)neutronic atoms
D)isomers
E)radioactive atoms

B)isotopes

28

What does the reactivity of an atom depend on?
A)number of valence shells in the atom
B)number of orbitals found in the atom
C)number of electrons in each orbital in the atom
D)presence of unpaired electrons in the outer valence shell of the atom
E)presence of hybridized orbitals in the atom

D)presence of unpaired electrons in the outer valence shell of the atom

29

A covalent chemical bond is one in which...
A)electrons are removed from one atom and transferred to another atom so that the two atoms become oppositely charged
B)proton and neutrons are shared by two atoms so as to satisfy the requirements of both atoms.
C)outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms
D)outer-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the inner electron shells of another atom
E)the inner-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the outer shell of another atom.

C)outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms

30

What do atoms form when the share electron pairs?
A)elements
B)ions
C)aggregates
D)isotopes
E)molecules

E)molecules

31

In a single molcule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by...
A)hydrogen bonds
B)nonpolar covalent bonds
C)polar covalent bonds
D)ionic bonds
E)van der Waals interactions

C)polar covalent bonds

32

What determines the cohesiveness of water molecules?
A)hydrophobic interactions
B)nonpolar covalent bonds
C)ionic bonds
D)hydrogen bonds
E)both A and C

D)hydrogen bonds

33

What do cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion have in common with reference to water?
A)all increase when temperature increases
B)all are produced by ionic bonding
C)all are properties related to hydrogen bonding
D)all have to do with nonpolar covalent bonds
E)C and D only

C)all are properties related to hydrogen bonding

34

Which of the following is possible due the high surface tension of water?
A)lakes don't freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures
B)a water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond
C)organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions
D)water can act as a solvent
E)The pH of water remains exactly neutral

B)a water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond

35

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are...
A)nonpolar substances that repel water molecules
B)nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules
C)polar substances that repel water molecules
D)polar substances that have an affinity for water
E)charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with water molecules

A)nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

36

Why does ice float in liquid water?
A)the liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice
B)the ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking
C)Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat
D)hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
E)the crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water

D)hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water

37

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [H+]?
A)gastric juice at pH2
B)vinegar at pH3
C)tomato juice at pH4
D)black coffee at pH5
E)household bleach at pH12

A)gastric juice at pH2

38

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions [OH-]?
A)lemon juice at pH2
B)vinegar at pH3
C)tomato juice at pH4
D)urine at pH6
E)seawater at pH8

E)seawater at pH8

39

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the...
A)concentration of H+ has decreased 10 times what it was at pH9
B)concentration of H+ has increased 10 times what it was at pH9
C)concentration of OH- has increased 10 times what it was at pH9
D)concentration of OH- has decreased 10 times what it was at pH9
E)B and D are correct

E)B and D are correct

40

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by...
A)releasing H+ in acidic solutions
B)donating H+ to a solution when they have been depleted
C)releasing OH- in basic solution
D)accepting H+ when they are in excess
E)both B and D

E)B and D are correct

41

Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of...
A)functional groups
B)vital forces interacting with matter
C)carbon compounds
D)water and its interaction with other kinds of molecules
E)inorganic compounds

C)carbon compounds

42

Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?
A)carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons
B)Carbon has a valence of 4
C)carbon forms ionic bonds
D)A and C only
E)A, B, and C

B)carbon has a valence of 4

43

What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency to form?
A)ionic
B)hydrogen
C)covalent
D)A and B only
E)A, B, and C

C)covalent

44

Hydrocarbons
A)are polar
B)are held together by ionic bonds
C)contain nitrogen
D)contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms
E)are held together by hydrogen bonds

D)contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms

45

What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
A)the majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon to hydrogen linkages
B)the majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages
C)they are hydrophilic
D)the exhibit considerable molecular complexity and diversity
E)they are lighter than water

B)the majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages

46

Which of the following is true of geometric isomers?
A)they have variations in arrangement around a double bond
B)they have an asymmetric carbon that makes them mirror images
C)they have the same chemical properties
D)they have different molecular formulas
E)their atoms and bonds are arranged in different sequences

A)they have variations in arrangement around a double bond

47

Which is the best description of a carbonyl group?
A)an oxygen joined to a carbon by a single covalent bond
B)a nitrogen and two hydrogens joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
C)a carbon joined to two hydrogens by a single covalent bonds
D)a sulfur and a hydrogen joined to a carbon by covalent bonds
E)a carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond

E)a carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond

48

Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?
A)an alcohol such as ethanol
B)a monosacharide such as glucose
C)a steroid such as testosterone
D)an amino acid such as glycine
E)a hydrocarbon such as benzene

D)an amino acid such as glycine

49

Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups?
A)they are basic in pH
B)they are found in amino acids
C)they contain nitrogen
D)they are nonpolar
E)they are components of urea

D)they are nonpolar

50

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A)ketone and aldehyde
B)carbonyl and carboxyl
C)carboxyl and amino
D)phosphate and sulfyhydryl
E)hydroxyl and aldehyde

C)carboxyl and amino