Microbiology Exam 1 Flashcards


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Microbiology ch 1-6
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1

Phospholipids

1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids
-hooked onto glycerol and phosphate groups
-have phosphate head and lipid tail
-Head: hydrophillic(love water)
-Tail: hydrophobic( hate water)

2

Pyrimidines VS Purines

-Pyrimidines: U, T, C
-Purines:A,G

3

Francisco Redi

(1668) Disproved spontaneous generation w/ meat experiment

4

Amino Acid Structure

Peptide Bond

5

Edward Jenner

(1796) Small Pox Vaccine
-Gave a little boy cow pox, after he got over it, tried to give the boy small pox and boy never got sick
- Discovered Vaccines
-Vaca: Cow in spanish

6

Goden Age of Microbiology

(1857-1914)
-prevention and curing diseases
-Aseptic Techniques
-Bio-genesis
-Germ Theory of Disease

7

Biogenesis

Living cells come from other living cells

8

Germ Theory of Disease

-Foreign Microbes/Mutated microbes cause sickness/ ailment
-Some thought you got sick because you deserved punishment

9

What is a peptide?

4-9 amino acids

-Polypeptide: 10s-1000s amino acids

10

Watson & Crick

(1953) -elucidated DNA structure
- Discovered DNA is a double helix

11

Recycling elements

-Decomposing trash, landfills, compost piles
-Convert C, O, N, P, S into forms we can use

12

Natural Products

-Alternative Fuels
-Antibiotics
-Alcohol
-Vaccines
-Yogurt

13

Cellular Respiration Cycle

1. Glucose -> 2 Pyruvic Acids
2. 2 Pyruvic Acids-> 2 Acetyle CoA + NADH/2FADH(2)
3. 2 Acetyl CoA + NADH/2FADH(2)-> Energy

14

Louis Pasteur

pasteurization
Heating up liquids to keep sterile
-swan neck flask

15

Modern Era

- Development of chemotherapy
-using chemicals for a treatment
-Developed Antibiotics

16

Paul Erlich

"magic bullet"
-something to kill disease yet not harm the host
-Salvarsan

17

Tertiary Structure

-3D Structure, not predictable
-Interactions of Amino Acid side chains ( R groups)
-Globular

18

Quaternary Structure

-2 or more polypeptide chains work as one unit
-globular ( hemoglobin) or fibrous ( actin and myocin)

19

Gene

-basic unit of heredity
-specific order of nitrogenous bases makes up 1 gene
- 10s-100s of nucleotides = 1 gene

20

DNA

-circular chromosomes
-genetic makeup of how we are
-determines protein sequence

21

Recombinant DNA Technology

-genetically enginerred food
-cloning
-insulin

22

Classification of life

Phylogenic tree of life
-3 domains
-6 Kingdoms
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

23

Chromosome

100s-1000s of genes make up 1 chromosome
-46 in humans

24

Genome

1s-10s of chromosomes = 1 genome
the human genome is 46 chromosomes

25

RNA

3 types
-mRNA
-messenger
-carries from DNA to ribosomes
- codes for protein sequence
-rRNA
-ribosomal
-made in the nucleolus
-tRNA
-reads mRNA
-help form proteins/correct amino acids

26

What are the 3 domains and the kingdoms of each?

Bacteria
-Eubacteria
Archaea
- Archaebacteria
Eukarya
- protista
-fungi
-plantae
-animalia

27

Prokaryote

Single-celled w/ no nucleus

28

Eukaryote

membrane bound organelle and nucleus
-can be 1 or more cells

29

Magnification

increase in apparent size of an object

30

Prokaryote Classification

-Shape
-Size
-Arrangement
-Food Requirements
-Chemical Testing

31

Subrstrate level Phosphorylation

ADP removes a phosphate directly from a substrate

32

Pleomorph

Changes shape
-PV (proteus vulgaris)
-Diptheria

33

Sprilium

spiral type shape

34

Comma

ex: Cholera

35

Spirillium

wasy, "S" shape

36

Fleming, Chain, Florey

-Fleming discovered penicillin
-Chain and Florey isolated and mass produced penicillin

37

Hooke

Built first microscope, series of lenses and mirrors
-observed cork, coined the term "cells" from monasteries

38

Leeuwenhoek

-built 450 microscopes (mag-300x)
-saw first living cells "Animacules"
-Cell theory

39

What is the order of biomolecules broken down when dieting?

1. Carbs
2. Fats
3. Proteins

40

Fat Metabolism

Lipids -> Fatty acids + Glycerol

enzymes= lipase

41

Spirochete

-Wrapped around axial filament
-Spiral
- ex lyme disease, syphillis

42

Star Shaped

Ex Stella

43

Rectangular

ex Haloarcula
-HALO= Salt loving

44

Prokaryotic Glycocalyses

-Sugar coat on outside bacterial wall made of sugar, carbs, and protein

45

Protein Metabolism

Proteins-> Amino Acids

Enzymes-peptidase(small)
protease (big)

46

Cell Theory

1. Cells are smallest unit of life
2. all living orgs are made of 1 or more cells
3. All cells must come from pre-existing cells

47

Oxidative Phosphorylation

e- are transferred from ORGANIC compounds to electron carriers ( nad+, fad+) and produce ATP throughenergy generation

48

PhotoPhosphorylation

get energy to make ATP through light

49

Spontaneous Generation

Forms of life spontaneously arise from non-living matter "POOF"

50

Staphylococcus

grouped together, looks like a beer pong formation

51

Phototaxis

can be positive or negative
pos-move towards light
neg- move away from light

52

Pepsin

Enzyme in stomach

53

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

Go hand in hand
OXIDATION: lose an electron, produce energy
Reduction: gain an electron, lose energy
REDOX reaction

54

What are the 3 steps of cellular respiration?

1. Glycolysis
2. Kreb's Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain

55

Glycolysis

-Substrate level phosphorylation
-Oxidation of Glucose
-Happens in cytoplasm in Euks, and Proks
-Glucose-> 2 pyruvic acids + 2 ATP+ 2NADH
-Does not require Oxygen
Purpose- split 6-c glucose into two 3-c glucose

56

Kreb's Cycle

2 pyruvic acids-> 2 Acetyl CoA-> 6 CO2+2ATP+ 2FADH2+8NADH + 10H+

All about creating NAD and FAD

57

Electron Transport Chain

NAD and FADH2 flow down the chain generating energy the way down.
Release energy as e- transfer from High to Low energy compounds

6CO2+12H+ + 10NADH +2FADH2->6H2O+ 3HATP=10NAD+ +2FAD+

EUK- miochondrial membrane
Prok- plasma membrane

58

Types of Prokaryotic Glycocalyse

1. Capsule
-organized
-firmly attached to cells
2. Slime Layer
-unorganized
-loosely attached to cell

59

Fermentation

1. After Glycolysis
2. No oxygen, no kreb's, no ECT
3.Release energy from sugar/lipids
4.Uses an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor
5.Only makes small amount of ATP
-lactic acid
-alcoholic

60

Lactic Acid

2NADH + 2pyruvic acids-> 2 Lactic Acids + 2NAD+

Lactobacillus
Streptococcus
-yogurt
-food spoilage
-pickles

61

Gram Negative Cell Wall (2)

one or few Peptidoglycan layers sandwiched between plasma membrane and outer membrane
-lipolysaccharide layer(lipids and sugars)
NO TECHOIC ACIDS
Has porin proteins
More resistant to antibiotics

62

Lysozymes

-Chemical produced by euks
hydrolyzes
breaks down apart NAG and NAM carb backbone in pg layer
-Saliva, Mucus, Tears

63

Flagellum

rotor like movement
not wavy like sperm
more circular motion
polar flagella

64

Monotrichous

one tail

65

Prokaryote Parts

1. Lipid bilayer
2. Enzymes
3. DNA
4. Ribosomes

66

Prokaryoute lipid bilayer

-Fluid mosaic model
-phospholipids
-proteins(for transport)
-Diffusion
-Osmosis
-Active Transport

67

Diffusion

-Passive movement of molecules (oxygen CO2) through cell

68

Amphitrichous

2 tails, one on either side

69

Lophotrichous

many tails coming out of one hole

70

Characteristics of Prokaryotes

no nucleus or oranelle
smaller in size
70s ribosomes
Circular chromosomes
no histones
peptidoglycan layer
binary fission for repro.
no carbs or sterol

71

Osmosis

Diffusion of water only

72

Alcoholic Fermentation

2 pyruvic acids-> 2 acteryaldehide + 2CO2

Acetaldehide= 2NADH and 2NAD+

Saccromyces= yeast
beer bread
anaerobic

73

Characteristics of Euks

nucleus and membrane bound organelle
bigger in size
single or multicellular
80s Ribosomes
no pg layer
sexual or asexual repro.

74

Resolution

power; to show details

light microscope = 2000x

75

Chemotaxis

Positive or negative
pos-move towards chemicals
neg- move away from chemicals

76

Fimbriae

-small protuberances
-poloar or nonpolar-few to hundreds
acts like velcro

77

Pili

-1 per cell
-for conjugation
-plasmid carries gene for pili creation and genes for antibiotic resistance

78

Steroids

fats built from cholesterol( 4 fused rings)
Find sterols in plasma membrane of FUNGI< PLANTS< ANIMALS

79

Proteins

-C, H, O, N, S
50% of mass of cell
amino acids have peptide bonds

80

Types of proteins

Enzymes
Transport( in and out of cell)
Structure( myocin and actin)

81

Peritrichous

many tails coming out of everywhere

82

Atrichous

no tail

83

Prok Cell wall functions

1. Transport
2. Keep from rupturing
3. Protection
4. Determines Shape
5. Anchor for flagella
6. Confers resistance to antibiotics

84

Gram Positive Cell walls (2)

Thick pg layer
chans of 2 sugars repeating (NAG,NAM)
HAS TECHOIC ACID

85

Oligosaccharides

2-20 units long

86

Gram negative cell wall

2 sets of rings
1-pg layer
1-membrane

87

Gram Positive

only 1 set of rings

88

Polysaccharide

more than 2 sugars, not usually sweet, straight or branched
10-100s long
ex starch
not soluble in water

89

Func of Prokaryotic Glycocalyse

Adhering to things
lubrication
protection from immune systems
UV protection

90

Taxis

Movement

91

Physiology of Enzymes

Temp cause reaction to go up
pH causes reactions to go up
Denaturing of proteins
Substrate concentration
Ihibitors ( competitive and Non competitive)

92

Endospores

can remain dormant for 1000's of years
bacilli shape only

93

metabolism

sum of all reactions in the body

94

2 types of metabolism

Catabolism
Anabolism

95

Scanning Electron Microscope

100,00X
beam of electrons creating a shower, to provie a 3D image

96

Transmission Electron Mic

200,000X
beam electrons straight through specimen
dead things only

97

Scanning Tunneling Electron Micros.

1,000,000,000X
Atomic Level
Nanometer scale
absolute zero-hundreds of degrees

98

3 types of lipids

Steroid
triglycerides
phospholipids