A+P chp 19 Flashcards


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1

Plasma minus its clotting proteins is termed _________ .

Correct Answer: serum

2

_________ is the consolidation or tightening of the fibrin clot that helps to bring the edges of a damaged vessel closer together.

Correct Answer: clot retraction

3

Hemoglobin functions in transporting both oxygen and carbon dioxide and in regulating blood pressure.

Correct Answer: True

4

The most numerous white blood cells in a differential white blood cell count of a healthy individual are the neutrophils.

Correct Answer: True

5

Which of the following are not required for clot formation? (1) vitamin K, (2) calcium, (3) prostacyclin, (4) plasmin, (5) fibrinogen.

Correct Answer:
3 and 4

6

Place the steps involved in hemostasis in the correct order. (1) conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, (2) conversion of prothrombin into thrombin, (3) adhesion and aggregation of platelets on damaged vessel, (4) prothrombinase formed by extrinsic or intrinsic pathway, (5) reduction of blood loss by initiation of a vascular spasm.

Correct Answer:
5, 3, 4, 2, 1

7

Which of the following statements explain why red blood cells (RBCs) are highly specialized for oxygen transport? (1) RBCs contain hemoglobin. (2) RBCs lack a nucleus. (3) RBCs have many mitochondria and thus generate ATP aerobically. (4) The biconcave shape of RBCs provides a large surface area for the inward and outward diffusion of gas molecules. (5) RBCs can carry up to four oxygen molecules for each hemoglobin molecule.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 4, and 5
Response Feedback:
(1) RBCs contain hemoglobin. (2) RBCs lack a nucleus. (3) RBCs DO NOT have many mitochondria and thus DO NOT generate ATP aerobically. (4) The biconcave shape of RBCs provides a large surface area for the inward and outward diffusion of gas molecules. (5) RBCs can carry up to four oxygen molecules for each hemoglobin molecule.

8

Which of the following are true? (1) White blood cells leave the bloodstream by emigration. (2) Adhesion molecules help white blood cells stick to the endothelium, which aids emigration. (3) Neutrophils and macrophages are active in phagocytosis. (4) The attraction of phagocytes to microbes and inflamed tissue is termed chemotaxis. (5) Leucopenia is an increase in white blood cell count that occurs during infection.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3, and 4
Response Feedback:
(1) White blood cells leave the bloodstream by emigration. (2) Adhesion molecules help white blood cells stick to the endothelium, which aids emigration. (3) Neutrophils and macrophages are active in phagocytosis. (4) The attraction of phagocytes to microbes and inflamed tissue is termed chemotaxis. (5) Leucopenia is a DEcrease in white blood cell count that occurs during infection.

9

A person with type A Rh2 blood can receive a blood transfusion from which of the following types? (1) A Rh+, (2) B Rh − , (3) AB Rh − , (4) O Rh − , (5) A Rh − .

Correct Answer:
4 and 5

10

A person with type B positive blood receives a transfusion of type AB positive blood. What will happen?

Correct Answer:
The recipient's antibodies will react with the donor's red blood cells.

11

What happens to the iron (Fe3+) that is released during the breakdown of damaged red blood cells?

Correct Answer:
It attaches to transferrin and is transported to bone marrow for use in hemoglobin synthesis.

12

Which of the following would not cause an increase in erythropoietin?

Correct Answer:
polycythemia.
Response Feedback:
"Poly" means "many". A person with polycythemia has too many red blood cells (RBCs). Therefore, their body would not want to increase the rate of RBC production (it would want to DECREASE RBC production).

13

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
contain hemoglobin and function in gas transport

Correct Answer:
red blood cells

14

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
cell fragments enclosed by a piece of the cell membrane of megakaryocytes; contain clotting factors

Correct Answer:
platelets

15

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
individual forms of progenitor cells; named on the basis of the mature elements in blood they will ultimately produce

Correct Answer:
colony-forming units

16

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
white blood cell showing a kidney-shaped nucleus; capable of phagocytosis

Correct Answer:
monocytes

17

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
monocytes that roam the tissues and gather at sites of infection or inflammation

Correct Answer:
wandering macrophages

18

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
occur as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells

Correct Answer:
lymphocytes

19

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
give rise to red blood cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets

Correct Answer:
myeloid stem cells

20

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
combat the effects of histamine and other mediators of inflammation in allergic reactions; also phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

Correct Answer:
eosinophils

21

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
respond to tissue destruction by bacteria; release lysozyme, strong oxidants, and defensins

Correct Answer:
neutrophils

22

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
older neutrophils with several differently shaped nuclear lobes

Correct Answer:
polymorphs

23

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
released from the red bone marrow, they develop into mature red blood cells

Correct Answer:
reticulocytes

24

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
give rise to lymphocytes

Correct Answer:
lymphoid stem cells

25

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
cells no longer capable of replenishing themselves; can only give rise to more specific formed elements of blood

Correct Answer:
progenitor cells

26

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
hormone that stimulates formation of platelets

Correct Answer:
thrombopoietin

27

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
monocytes that leave the blood and reside in a particular tissue such as alveolar macrophages in the lungs

Correct Answer:
fixed macrophages

28

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions; are involved in hypersensitivity reactions

Correct Answer:
basophils

29

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
stimulate white blood cell formation

Correct Answer:
cytokines

30

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
cells that give rise to all the formed elements of blood; derived from mesenchyme

Correct Answer:
pluripotent stem cells

31

Match the following blood components to their descriptions.
hormone that increases the numbers of red blood cell precursors

Correct Answer:
erythropoietin

32

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
tissue protein that leaks into the blood from cells outside blood vessels and initiates the formation of prothrombinase

Correct Answer:
thromboplastin

33

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
an anticoagulant

Correct Answer:
heparin

34

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
platelet hormone that stim-ulates repair of damaged vessel walls

Correct Answer:
platelet-derived growth factor

35

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
its formation is initiated by either the extrinsic or intrin-sic pathway or both; catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

Correct Answer:
prothrombinase

36

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.Correct Answer:
glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surfaces of red blood cells that can act as antigens

Correct Answer:
agglutinogens

37

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
forms the threads of a clot; produced from fibrinogen

Correct Answer:
fibrin

38

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
can dissolve a clot by digesting fibrin threads

Correct Answer:
plasmin

39

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
serves as the catalyst to form fibrin; formed from prothrombin

Correct Answer:
thrombin

40

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
the percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells

Correct Answer:
hematocrit

41

Match the following clotting elements with their descriptions.
the percentage of each type of white blood cell

Correct Answer:
differential white blood cell count

42

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
measures numbers of RBCs, WBCs, platelets per μl of blood; hematocrit, and differential WBC count

Correct Answer:
complete blood count

43

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
measures the rate of erythropoiesis

Correct Answer:
reticulocyte count

44

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
withdrawal of blood from a vein using a needle and collecting tube

Correct Answer:
venipuncture

45

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
withdrawal of a small amount of red bone marrow with a fine needle and syringe

Correct Answer:
bone marrow aspiration

46

Match the following blood tests to their descriptions.
removal of a core of red bone marrow with a large needle

Correct Answer:
bone marrow biopsy