AP Psychology Chapter 2: The Biology of Mind Flashcards


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1

biological psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology & behavior

2

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

3

sensory neuron

a neuron that carries incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

4

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs

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dendrite

bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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phrenology

ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character traits

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threshold

level of stimulation needed to trigger a neiral impulse

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synapse

junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of receiving neuron

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons

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reuptake

neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

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endorphins

"morphine within"; natural, opiatlike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure

16

nervous system

body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands , and sensory organs

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somatic nervous system

division of PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system

part of PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

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sympathetic nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

23

parasympathetic nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus

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lesion

tissue destruction

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EEG

amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface

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PET scan

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue

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fMRI

technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans

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brainstem

oldest and central core of the brine, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skulls' life-preserving functions

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medulla

base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing rate

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reticular formation

nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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thalamus

brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of brainstem

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cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; controls balance

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limbic system

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres

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amygdala

lima bean sized neural clusters in limbic system that control emotions

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hypothalamus

lies below thalamus; linked with maintenance activities, endocrine system, emotion, and reward

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cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; body's ultimate control and information-processing center

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glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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frontal lobes

lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking, muscle movements, decisions, and judgement

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parietal lobes

lying at the top of the head; receives sensory input for touch and body position

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occipital lobes

back of the head; receives information from the visual fields

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temporal lobes

located just above the ears; controls auditory areas

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motor cortex

area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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plasticity

brain's ability to change, especially during childhood

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endocrine system

body's slow chemical communication system; set of glands that secretes hormones into the bloodstream

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hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by endocrine glands, travel through bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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adrenal glands

a pair of glands found above kidneys and secrete hormones that arouse body in times of stress

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pituitary gland

endocrine system's most influential gland, regulates growth and other endocrine glands

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corpus callosum

large band of neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

53

split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fivers connecting them

54

neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons