The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is known as ______________.
_______ refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. ________ reactions release energy.
_________ refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are comined ro form more complex molecules. ___________ require more ____________.
The energy of________ is used to drive ____________.
catabolic reactions is used to drive anabolic reactions
The energy for chemical reactions is stored in _____________.
_______ are proteins produced by living cells.
Enzymes function is to _____________________________________.
catalyze cheical reactionsby loering the activation energy
Enzymes are generally __________proteins with characterstic ____________ shape.
Enzymes are efficient and can operate at relatively ________ temperatures and are subject to various cellular controls.
Enzyme names usually end in _________.
The 6 classes of enzymes are defined on the basis of the types of ________ they _____________.
Most enzymes are _____________ consisting of a _________ and a _________.
protein portion- (apoenzyme)
non-protein porttion- (co-factor)
The cofactor can be a __________ (iron, cobalt, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc and calcium) or a complex organic molecule known as ________________ (NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD, or coenzyme A).
True or false. When an enzyme and substrate combine the substrate is transformed and the enzyme is recovered.
Enzymes are characterized by ________________ which is characterized by their active sites.
At ____________ temperatures enzymes undergo ____________ and lose their catalytic properties.
At __________ temperatures enzymes _________ rate _______________.
The pHat which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the __________ pH.
Enzymatic activity increases as substrate concentration ___________ until the enzymes are _______________.
________ inhibitors compete with normal substrate for the ________ site of the enzyme.
_________ inhibitors act on other parts of the apoenzyme or on the cofactor and decrease the enzyme's ability to combine with normal substrate.
__________ ________ occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme's activity near the start of the pathway.
________ are enzymatic RNA molecules that cut and splice RNA in eukaryotic cells.
_______ it the removal of one or more electrons from a substrate. Protons (H+) are removed with the electrons.
Reduction of a substrate refers to its ______ of one or more ______________.
True or false. Each time a substance is oxidized another is simultaneously reduced.
NAD+ is the reduced or oxidized form
NADH is the _______form.
True or false. Glucose is a reduced molecule; energy is released during a cell's oxidation of glucose.
Energy released during certain metabolic reactions can be trapped to form _____ from ___________ and (P)-phosphate.
Adding a (P) to a molecule is called _______________.
During substrate-level phosphorylation a ______________ (P) from an intermediate in catabolism is added to ADP.
True or False. During oxidative phosphorylation energy is released as electrons are passed to a series of of electron acceptors (an electron transport chain) and finally to O2 or another inorganic compound,
Photophosphorylation only happens in ___________ organisms.
2. release energy (exergenic)
3. typically occur via hydrolysis
Synthesis reactions-put together -build
require the input of energy (endergonic)
typically occur via dehydration synthesis
dehydration synthesis (left to right)
a chemical reaction in which a molecule of water is released in the reaction of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose combine to form a molecule of the disaccharide sucrose.
Hydrolysis (right to left)
in hydrolysis the sucrose molecule breaks down into the smaller molecules glucose and fructose. For the hydrolysis reaction to proceed, water must be added to the sucrose.
What is the most usable form of energy?
Catabolic ______ and _______ _________.
and make ATP
Anabolic ________ and ______ _______.
build and use ATP
There are different types of energy
ATP is _____________ energy.
True or false. Heat is a useless energy it can't be reused.
Organic molecules contain energy stored in their bonds. More specifically energy is associated with _______ that form those bonds.
Most of a cell's energy is produced from the __________ of ________________.
oxidation of carbohydrates
What is the most commonly used carbohydrate?
The two major types of glucose catabolism are __________in which glucose is completely broken down and _________ is when it is partially broken down,
What is the most common pathway for the oxidation of glucose?
What is the end product of glycolysis?
Two ATP and two NADH are produced rom one ________ ________.
Cells extract energy and store it in ?
Oxidation reactions involves the oxidation of a molecule. A molecule loses energy-containing electrons. Reduction reactions involves the reduction of a molecule. A molecule gains energy containing electrons. What is a good way to remember this ?
LEO goes GER
Loss of electrons is oxidation; gain of electrons is reduction
oxidation is loss and Reduction is gain
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) does what?
1. stores chemical energy released by catabolic reactions
2. provides energy for anabolic reactions
What is ATPs structure?
Adenosine unit (ribose and adenine) + 3 phosphate groups (3 like charges forced together =high energy bonds)
What are the three mechanisms of ATP?
1. substrate level phosphorylation - transfer of a high energy phosphate from a phosphorylated compound to ADP (sharing phosphate with ADP)
2. Oxidative phosphorylation- cellular respiration
-ETC creates proton motive force
-H+ channeled through ATP synthase along the concentration gradient
-energy from proton motive force used to phosphorylate ADP
3. Photophosphorylation-Photosynthetic organisms
-occurs only in photosynthetic organisms
-process similar to phosphorylation
During respiration _______ molecules are ________.
During cellular respiration energy is generated from the ________________.
Electron transport chain (ETC)
In aerobic respiration what is the final electron acceptor?
In anaerobic respiration what is the final electron acceptor?
any other inorganic molecule other than O2
Decarboxylation of pyruvic acid produces one CO2 and one ________________ group.
True or false. Pyruvic acid cannot enter the Krebs's cycle.
Collisions depend on?
molecular energy (only some will have enough)
molecular chemical configurations
Rate of reaction increases when ______________.
Amount of heat is increased
-molecular movement increases
-frequency of collision increases
-number of molecules that are at or above the activation energy level increases
Other ways to increase reaction rate:
-increase the pressure
-increase the number of reactants
True or false. Most enzymes are proteins.
Enzymes function as ______________.
-speed up chemical reactions
-lower the activation energy of the chemical reaction
-not used up in a chemical reaction
- specific to the reaction that it catalyzes
-act on specific substrate (s)
Enzyme is like a puzzle. The pieces go in a specific way.
no answer just an analogy
A substrate is_____________.
A molecule your enzymes works on to make another product.
What site does the substrate bind to?
The active site-like a handshake a tightening fit
Cofactor is another piece but it is not a ______________.
The cofactor and _________ make the whole piece that fits into the ________ site.
What factors affect enzymes?
1. temperature (optimal 35-37*C)
2. pH (7 optimal)
3. substrate concentration- goes high and plateaus
Competitive - competes directly for the active site
non-competitive- competes in directly for the alosteric site
-causes active site to change shape so the the correct substrate cant bind
(eg. DDT is an inhibitor)
Stop signal of enzyme always binds to ___________ .
Allosteric site does what?
causes active site to change shape halting substrate to fit
The stop signal is the?
end product itself
Cellular respiration is ______________________?
The process by which living organisms aerobically harvest energy from food
Cellular respiration involves 3 major steps:
1. Glycolysis-breaking down of glucose
2.Kreb's cycle-removal of all energy
3.Electron Transport chain-
Glycolysis is the _____________________.
Glucose breaking down -----> pyruvic acid
produces small amounts of ATP and NADH
occurs in cytoplasm
In the Krebs's cycle two carbon acetyl groups are __________.Electrons are picked up by NAD+ and FAD for the electron transport chain.
From one molecule of glucose, oxidation produces __ molecules of NADH, two molecules of ________ and two molecules of ___________ .
Decarboxylation produces six molecules of ______ .
Electrons are brought to the ETC by __________.
The ETC consists of _______ carriers.
splitting of sugar
One glucose molecule produces two ____ and two_____.
ATP and NADH
The end product of glycolysis is ______________.
True or false. Two molecules of ATP are invested.
Step 1 of glycolysis:
glucose was phosphorylated and ATP was dephosphorylated.
Step 3 of glycolysis:
Fructose-6 phosphate was phosphorylated while ATP was dephosphorylated.
True or false pyruvic acid can't enter the Krebs's cycle.
___________ is decarboxylated (carbon removed)and is oxidized by_________. Acetyl group is attached via a high energy bond to coenzyme A (CoA)
Krebs's cycle steps:
acetyl enters the cycle
-CoA is reused to help another acetyl enter the Krebs's cycle
Acetyl is oxidized in a series of steps
CO2 is produced (all carbon that enters exists as CO2)
NADH and FADH are produced by redox reactions
Krebs's cycle is the complete oxidation of _______.
- pull all the energy out from acetyl ----> oxidation remove electrons.
Oxygen is highly electronegative?
Examples of final electron acceptors
Nitrate-E. coli and pseudomonas
Chemiosmosis is the generation of _____ using the ______.
ETC is embedded in __________________.
Most of the cell's ATP is produced at this stage __________ .
H+ diffuse across the membrane through ______ channels containing an enzyme ______________.
know this summary
Fermentation is the metabolic process used to extract energy from a sugar or other _______ molecule.
True or false. Fermentation does not require the Krebs's cycle or ETC
Does fermentation require oxygen?
In fermentation the final electron acceptor is _____________.
It will either produce _______ or ______________.
Does fermentation yield any ATP?
yes but in small amounts only during glycolysis
Two types of fermentation:
1. lactic acid fermentation:
-pyruvic acid-----> lactic acid (streptococcus and lactobacillus are lactic acid bacteria)
homoplactic- can only produce lactic acid
2. alcohol fermentation:
-heterolactic (variety of products due to fermentation)