Campbell Biology: Final Review Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapters 22-35, 40-42, 44, 46, 52-54
updated 10 years ago by queenbenedicta
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biology, evolution, biodiversity, science, life sciences
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1

At its most basic, this unifying concept has been describe as "descent with Modification"

Evolution

2

Founded the binomial classification system for living organisms.

Carolus Linnaeus

3

The smallest unit of living things that can evolve.

Population

4

This group, which includes the majority of unicellular eukaryote lineages, is sometimes called the "junk drawer" of modern phylogeny.

Protist

5

The dominant generation of a seed plant's life cycle (gymnosperm or angiosperm)

Sporophyte

6

Because fungi are unable to make their own food, they secrete enzymes to absorb it, which is a form of this nutritional mode.

Heterotrophy

7

Two specialized types of cells/tissues that are only present in animals, and underlie many of their adaptions.

Muscle & Nerve

8

Both gram positive and gram negative bacterial cells have this type of cell wall, just in differing amounts.

Peptidoglycan

9

This protective layer keeps spores from drying out, and was a key adaption for plants moving to land.

Sporopollenin

10

Fungi share the use of this structural material with their animal neighbors, the arthropods.

Chitin

11

Most animal phyla show this type of body symmetry, as well as three germ layers

Bilateral

12

This theory describes how eukaryotic cells originate, by engulfing small prokaryotes.

Endosymbiosis

13

The presence of two types of spores, megaspores and microspores in seed plants.

Heterspory

14

What is the name of the eukaryotic supergroup that includes the fungi and the animals?

Unikonta

15

This group of brainy mollusks are predatory, and have a closed circulatory system, unlike their clammy cousins.

Cephlopod

16

Major contribution to biology published by Charles Darwin.

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

17

In what year was Charles Darwin's work published?

1859

18

These pioneering photosynthesizers count the green and red algal groups as their closet relatives.

Land Plants

19

What is the name of the protist supergroup containing land plants, red, and green algae?

Archaeplastida

20

Localized regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots, these are one of the traits that separate plants from their algal relatives

Apical Meristems

21

Name the other three traits that distinguish plants from algae, besides apical meristems.

Alternation of Generation
Sporangia
Gametangia

22

These thin multicellular filaments make up the bulk of fungal growth.

Hyphae

23

What are a network of hyphae called?

Mycelium

24

Not only are these arthropods the most species rich group of any life form, they usually undergo some find of metamorphosis in their lifetime.

Insects

25

What is an insect's molting process called?

Ecdysis

26

The gene pool of a population that is not evolving is said to fit this principle.

Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium

27

Name five characteristics of a population not evolving.

No Mutation
No Natural Selection
Random Mating
Large Population
No Gene Flow

28

This group of small, single celled organisms without organelles don't appear to fit the "biological species concept", because they lack lack sexual reproduction.

Prokaryotes

29

The female reproductive element of an angiosperm flower, it produces megaspores and, therefore female gametophytes. The ovary is in its base.

Carpel

30

The process of haploid nuclei fusing and producing diploid cells/

Karyogamy

31

The fusion of cytoplasm.

Plasmogamy

32

Lancelets, tunicates, and hagfishes represent three groups of chordates that are pre- this major grouping of the animal kingdom.

Vertebrates

33

Most of the vertebrates are gnathosomes, which means they have what feature?

Jaws

34

What is the proximate age of Earth?

4.6 Billion Years

35

These two categories represent the two parts of each organism's scientific name?

Genus & Species

36

The maintenance of steady state in an animal, despite internal and external changes.

Homeostasis

37

Examples in a plant include stems, leaves, roots, and flowers in angiosperms.

Organs

38

These major zones of life on earth are characterized by physical environment and vegetation type.

Biome

39

Fossils can be aged using the unstable decay of isotopes in this process.

Radiometric Dating

40

These three domains represent all of life on earth.

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

41

These are the four stages of food processing that take place in an animal.

Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, & Elimination

42

This type of cell is your "average plant cell", and typically will photosynthesize or store materials.

Parenchyma

43

In this top layer of an aquatic biome, organisms can produce their own food from sunlight.

Photic Zone

44

Both the Cambrian Explosion and the colonization of land happened around this same relative time period in the earth's history.

500 Million Years Ago

45

The evolutionary history of a species, or group of species, often represented in a branched diagram.

Phylogeny

46

The daily fluctuations in metabolism and behavior in an animal, which are attuned to the cycles of light and dark in the environment.

Circadian Rhythm

47

The root apical meristem is protected by this structure, as it pushes down through the ground.

Root Cap

48

This change in a human population occurs as a result of improved sanitation, education, and health care, as the population moves from high birth and death rates and short lifespans, to low birth and death rates and long lifespans.

Demographic Transistion

49

The geological phenomenon greatly influenced the physical environment, climate patterns, and the distribution of species on the exposed parts of the earth's plates.

Continental Drift

50

What type of speciation does continental drift represent?

Allopatric

51

Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor/branch point, and are each other's closest relatives.

Sister Taxa

52

Mammmals have how many circuits in their circulation.

2

53

What are the names of the two circuits mammals have?

Pulmonary & Systemic

54

This phenomenon, consisting of solute concentration and physical pressure, is responsible for the direction of water movement in a plant.

Water Potential

55

Exponential population growth is represented by this letter in our population growth equation.

R

56

The exponential curve is shaped like what letter?

J

57

This mass extinction ended the era of the dinosaurs.

Cretaceous Extinction

58

What is the prevailing theory for the cause of dinosaur extinction?

Asteroid Collision

59

This monophyletic grouping includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants in a tree shaped diagram.

Clade

60

The name of the structures within the lungs where gas exchange occurs.

Alveoli

61

The substance that moves from sources to sinks in plant vascular tissue.

Sugar

62

This type of interaction occurs when two species live in direct and close contact or association with each other. These interactions can be harmful, helpful, or neutral.

Symbiosis