Personality

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Psychology
Chapter 13
Practice Test
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1

The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective.
a. trait
b. social-cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic

c.

2

Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a
a. strong ego.
b. weak id.
c. strong superego.
d. weak ego.

d.

3

Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of
a. an oral fixation.
b. an inferiority complex.
c. reaction formation.
d. an Oedipus complex.

a.

4

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as
a. regression.
b. projection.
c. displacement.
d. reaction formation.

d.

5

Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning.
a. inferiority feelings
b. psychosexual stages
c. the collective unconscious
d. unconditional positive regard

c.

6

Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.
a. empirically derived
b. self-esteem
c. factor analytic
d. projective

d.

7

Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate
a. extraversion.
b. reaction formation.
c. self-actualization.
d. an external locus of control.

c.

8

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
a. empirically derived tests.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. a positive self-concept.
d. an external locus of control.

c.

9

Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
a. projective testing
b. factor analysis
c. empirically derived testing
d. free association

b.

10

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. an external locus of control.
c. the Barnum effect.
d. the self-reference phenomenon.

c.

11

One of the Big Five personality factors is
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. self-actualization.
c. agreeableness.
d. free association.

c.

12

Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates
a. self-serving bias.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. the spotlight effect.

b.

13

Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. the Barnum effect.
c. the false consensus effect.
d. an external locus of control.

d.

14

Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates
a. the false consensus effect.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. a pessimistic attributional style.

d.

15

When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. defensive self-esteem.
c. reciprocal determinism.
d. the Barnum effect.

a.

16

Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. unconscious wishes.
d. self-serving bias.

c.

17

Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n)
a. inferiority complex.
b. external locus of control.
c. weak superego.
d. oral fixation.

c.

18

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with
a. an oral fixation.
b. free association.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. the Oedipus complex.

d.

19

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates
a. identification.
b. reaction formation.
c. displacement.
d. projection.

c.

20

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of
a. erogenous zones.
b. reaction formation.
c. displacement.
d. repression.

d.

21

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. the reality principle.
c. self-transcendence.
d. unconditional positive regard.

c.

22

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
a. Gordon Allport
b. Albert Bandura
c. Carl Rogers
d. Alfred Adler

c.

23

The MMPI was originally developed to identify
a. a hierarchy of needs.
b. psychosexual stages.
c. unconditional positive regard.
d. emotional disorders.

d.

24

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called
a. defense mechanisms.
b. psychosexual stages.
c. the hierarchy of needs.
d. the Big Five.

d.

25

The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. an internal locus of control.
c. factor analysis.
d. trait theories

d.

26

We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of
a. collectivism.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. self-transcendence.
d. situational influences.

d.

27

The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our environment, a process that Albert Bandura called
a. free association.
b. self-actualization.
c. reciprocal determinism.
d. reaction formation.

c.

28

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates
a. the spotlight effect.
b. an Electra complex.
c. learned helplessness.
d. defensive self-esteem.

c.

29

Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates
a. the Barnum effect.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. the false consensus effect.
d. unrealistic optimism.

d.

30

Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. reciprocal determinism.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. self-serving bias.

d.