where do the ureters enter the urinary bladder
d. the posterolateral surface
what part of the urinary bladder expands very little during bladder filling?
b. the trigone
what muscle is responsible for contraction of the urinary bladder during mucturition?
d. detrusor muscle
what type of tissue is responsible for the expansion of the urinary bladder during filling?
a. transitional epithelium
why is the external urinary sphincter under conscious control?
c. it is made of skeletal muscle
how much urine would be in the urinary bladder to increase the pressure to an uncomfortable point?
d. 500 mL
a. involves higher brain centers
which of the following statements concerning the micturition reflex is false?
c. efferent signals are sent to the bladder by sympathetic fibers in the pelvic nerve
with aging, a loss of inhibitory action potentials to the sacral region of the spinal cord results in
d. uncontrollable micurition
in glomerular nephritis, proteins and white blood cells enter the filtrate resulting in
d. increased urine output
which of the following conditions is characterized by inflammation of the renal medulla?
which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the kidneys?
d. a marked decrease in the ability to maintain homeostasis
urea and mannitol are examples of which of the following types of diuretics?
a. osmotic diuretics
diuretics that work by reducing H+ secretion and the reabsorption of HCO3- ions are classified as
d. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
urine flows through the ureters to the bladder as the result of
d. peristaltic contractions
when the tubular maximum for a substance is exceeded
e. the excess remains in the urine
if the tubular maximum for a particular amino acid is 200 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 100 mg/100 ml, the amino acid
b. will be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells
diuretics that inhibit sodium ion reabsorption are called
c. thiazide diuretics
drug companies use which of the following to help them calculate the duration of action of a medication?
a. plasma clearance
renal blood flow per minute can be calculated if you know the clearance calculation for ____ as well as the person's hematocrit
tubular load refers to the amount of a given substance that
b. passes through the filtration membrane into the nephron each minute
to calculate plasma clearance of any substance, it is necessary to know the
e. quantity of urine produced per minute, the concentration of the cleared substance in the urine, and the concentration of the cleared substance in the blood
a substance used to calculate plasma clearance must
a. pass freely through the filtration membrane of the renal corpuscle
decreased plasma clearance can indicate
b. renal failure
stretch receptors in the atria are responsible for the secretion of
d. atrial natriuretic hormone
increased secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone results in
b. increased urine output
a substance that is useful for determining the plasma clearance rate of the kidney is
put the following in the correct order after the blood pressure increases
d. 3, 1, 5, 2, 4
what macula densa cells experience increased Na+ concentration in the filtrate, they respond by
c. decreasing renin secretion
decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles results in
a. increased renin secretion
intense sympathetic stimulation of the kidney
c. decreases renal flow
if extracellular fluid osmolality is 385 mOsm/kg, the kidneys will increase reabsorption of
blood loss that occurs during surgery will stimulate cells in the
d. juxtaglomerular apparatus
ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts by
c. incorporating aquaporin-2 channels into the apical membrane
atrial natriretic hormone
d. is secreted when atrial blood pressure increases
autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of
a. constriction of afferent arterioles
aldosterone exerts its effect on the kidney tubules by
d. increasing the synthesis of the transport proteins for sodium
lasix is a diuretic that blocks the reabsorption of sodium in the ascending loop of Henle. the result is giving this drug would
a. increased urine output
consumption of alcohol increases urine production by
c. inhibiting the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary
which of the following is not an action of angiotensin II?
d. decreases peripheral resistance
increased aldosterone causes increased
c. potassium secretion
aldosterone targets cells in the
c. distal convoluted tubule
c. angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
the kidneys produce renin when
c. the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole decreases
b. stimulates aldosterone secretion
removal of the posterior pituitary will immediately cause
b. an increase in urine output
a 15% increase in blood pressure would result in which of the following changes in ADH secretion?
b. decreased secretion
the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes
which of the following situations increases the number of action potentials to the supraoptic regions of the hypothalamus?
c. increased plasma osmolality
decreased ADH levels results in urine high in
b. water content
diabetes insipidus is the result of decreased
filtrate reabsortion, which occurs regardless of the concentration and volume of urine produced, is referred to as
urine concentration and volume depend on water reabsorption in the
e. distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts
some lung cancers secrete large amounts of ADH. this causes increased water reabsorption in the
c. distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts
the kidney dialysis machine is an example of a mechanical
b. countercurrent system
by the time filtrate reaches the tip of the loop of Henle, ____ of the filtrate has been reabsorbed
the filtrate that drips from the renal papillae into the calyces
d. has a higher concentration of waste products (urea) than the original filtrate, may have lost up to 99% of its original waste, and is called urine
starting from the collecting duct, indicate the order in which urea molecules move to maintain the medullary concentration gradient
e. 4, 3, 5, 1, 2
which of the following statements is true?
b. solutes are actively transported from the ascending limb
which structure removes excess water and solutes from the kidneys medullary interstitial fluid?
d. vasa recta
which of the following helps maintain a high solute concentration in the kidney medulla?
e. all of these choices are correct
which of the following would help maintain the medullary concentration gradient?
b. urea movement from the collecting duct to medullary interstitial fluid
the countercurrent multiplier system
e. has fluid flowing in parallel tubes in opposite directions and maintains the solute concentration of the medullary interstitial fluid
a countercurrent mechanism is in
e. both the loop of Henle and the vasa recta
in which of the following locations is filtrate osmolality highest?
b. tip of the loop of Henle
which of the following statements is true?
c. reabsorption of water in the filtrate may be hormonally controlled
the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine depends on
b. a high medullary concentration gradient
the vasa recta
c. collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid
in the sodium-hydrogen antiport system,
c. sodium ions are transported into the cell; hydrogen ions are transported out of the cell
tubular secretion occurs in which of the following structures?
d. distal convoluted tubule
tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ in that
b. tubular secretion adds materials to the filtrate; tubular reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate
hydrogen ions are secreted into the filtrate by both the
a. proximal and distal tubules
which of the following are most likely to be actively secreted into the distal convoluted tubule?
a. potassium ions
potassium ions enter the lumen of the ____ by the process of active transport
d. distal tube
as ADH production declines,
d. the urine volume increases
when ADH binds to receptor sites on distal tubule cells,
e. the distal tubule is more permeable to water
b. diffuse out of the collecting ducts into the interstitial fluid of the medulla and then diffuse into the descending loop of Henle
which of the following ions are cotransported across the wall of the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and the ascending loop of Henle?
c. sodium and chloride
the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules
d. vary in their permeability to water relative to the amounts of ADH present
the collecting duct becomes more permeable to water when
b. ADH production increases
water reabsorption by the renal tubules uses
in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
b. potassium and chloride are cotransported with sodium across the apical membrane
once inside the cells of the ascending limb, potassium and chloride cross the basal membrane into the interstitial fluid by the process of
a. facilitated diffusion
the proximal convoluted tubule is
b. the site of glucose and amino acid reabsorption
arrange the following in correct order
b. 4, 2, 1, 3
glucose is usually completely reabsorbed from the filtrate by the time the filtrate has reached the
d. end of the proximal convoluted tubule
when sodium is actively transported from tubular cells to the interstitial fluid
c. Na+ concentration gradient is established between the tubule lumen and tubule cell
substances that are cotransported into proximal convoluted tubule cells include
d. glucose molecules with sodium ions
most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the
a. proximal convoluted tubule
which of the following events would increase filtration pressure?
b. constriction of the efferent arteriole
in the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation, what is the response to an increase in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole?
d. constriction of the afferent arteriole
what is the effect of intense sympathetic stimulation on the GFR?
b. GFR decreases
the movement of fluid into Bowman's capsule is opposed by
b. capsular hydrostatic pressure
if the following hypothetical conditions exist in the nephron, calculate the net filtration pressure
c. 50 mmHg
which of the following pressures tends to force fluid from the glomerulus through the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule?
d. golmerular capillary pressure
passage of proteins into Bowman's capsule is prevented by
e. the size of the capillary pores, the size of the filtration slits in the podocytes, and the size of the proteins
in the glomerulonephritis, the permeability of the filtration membrane increases allowing proteins to cross the membrane. which of the following would you expect to observe?
a. increase in filtration volume
decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure affects renal function by
a. increasing net filtration pressure
at the rate of 125 ml of filtrate/minute, estimate the amount of filtrate formed in 24 hours
d. 180 liters
what percent of filtrate becomes urine?
a. less than 1%
plasma contains a much greater concentration of ____ than the glomerular filtrate
the active transport of substances into the filtrate is called tubular
the part of the cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is the
a. renal fraction
the amount of filtrate produced per minute is called the
c. glomerular filtration rate
skeletal muscle that surronds the urethra as it extends through the pelvic floor forms the
c. external urinary sphincter
urine formation involves
e. filtration of the plasma, reabsorption from the filtrate, and the secretion into the filtrate
formation of filtrate depends on a
a. pressure gradient
which of these vessels gives rise to the peritubular capillary?
c. efferent arteriole
trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus:
c. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
the urinary bladder
a. stores urine until it is voided
choose the one that does not belong
one feature of renal blood circulation that makes it urine is that
d. each nephron has at least two capillary networks
the vasa recta is a specialized portion of the
d. peritubular capillary
urine drains from the nephron into the calyces through the
b. collecting duct
arrange the following in the sequences in which filtrate moves through them
d. 2, 4, 1, 3
what type of cells form the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli
the portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting ducts is the
c. distal convoluted tubule
the renal corpuscle connects to the
e. proximal convoluted tubule
which of the following is between the proximal and distal convoluted tubles?
b. the loop of Henle
the filtration membrane consists of the
e. podocytes, capillary endothelium, and basement membrane
choose the term that does not belong
the juxtaglomerular apparetus is composed of
a. juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa
the openings between the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries are called
filtration slits is the name given to the
c. gasps between the podocyte processes in the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
an obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the
the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
e. is part of the filtration membrane and contains podocytes
which of the following layers of the filtration membrane is closest to the plasma?
c. glomerular endothelium
the inner layer of Bowman's capsule consists of specialized cells called
the network of capillaries that is located in Bowman's capsule is called the
the renal corpuscle consists of
b. the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
which of the following structures is a capillary?
the structural and functional units of the kidneys are called
the juxtamedullary nephrons
a. have long loops of Henle
which of the following is not part of a nephron?
b. collecting duct
corticol tissue located between the pyramids is called
c. renal columns
the tip of each renal pyramid is called
b. a renal papilla
the renal papillae extended into the
c. minor calyces
blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the
the ureter expands into the substance of the kidney as the
b. renal pelvis
the portion of the kidney that is composed of cone-shaped renal pyramids is called the
urine is carried from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by the
arrange the following structures in correct sequence:
b. 3, 2, 1, 4, 5
the kidney is protected from mechanical shock by the
c. renal fat pad
what is/are the main excretory organ/s of the body?
the kidney functions in
d. excretion of metabolic wastes
which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney?
a. urine storage