Adv Leaning Psych Flashcards


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1

During a state of arousal

Pain is surpressed

2

Caden was overjoyed when he learned that he was accepted into a top business school. His heart rate and blood pressure increased, and he started to breathe more rapidly. According to the James-Lange thery of emotion

Caden's psychological changes led him to consciously experience "hapiness"

3

Which of the following is true regarding emotions in nonhuman animals?

The biological responses made in emotional situations are similiar in humans and nonhuman animals

4

People who listen to an emotional narrative while watching an accompanying slide show

remember the pictures from emotional parts of the slide show particularly well

5

Strong and vivid memories for highly emotional events are called

flashbulb memories

6

Which of the following is not a reason that expermental studies of emotion have focused on the emotion of fear?

Fear is inherently more important than the other emotions

7

Which of the following is an example of a conditioned emotional response

a rat freezes in response to a tone that was previously paired with a shock

8

When compared to conditioned responses that do not involve emotion conditioned or emotional responses

are harder to extinguish

9

Nathan once failed a class taught by a particular professor. He now refuses to take another class with that professor again, and seeks out other professors who teaches the classes he needs

conditioned avoidance

10

When researchers exposed dogs to an inescapable shock and then put the dogs in a situation in which they could escape the shock, the dogs

did not learn to escape the shock

11

What is he phenomenon in which exposure to an uncntrollable punisher reduces the chance that an organism will try to make an avoidance response?

learned helplessness

12

Human depression seems to involve

learned helplessness

13

Hannah successfully solved several problems in her math class. She was then given some very difficult problems that she could not solve. The research on learned helplessness suggests that if Hannah is then given some easier prblems to try to solve, she will...

try to solve the problems

14

The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is responible for

modulating storage and rerieval of emotional memories

15

Which part of the amygdala is primarily responsible for the increase in heart rate and blood presure that is experienced when a person feels fear?

Ventral nucleus

16

Which of the following is true regarding the connnections within the amygdala?

the laterl nucleus sends output to the basolateral nucleus and the central nucleus

17

Electrical stimulation of the amygdala poduces

a strong emotional response in animals and a mild emotional response in humans

18

lesion of the cntral nucleus of the amygdala

may result in problems with expressing but not learning a fear response

19

which part of the brain is often considered to be the sensory gateway to the brain?

the thalamus

20

a direct pathway to the amygdala is ____ than the indirect pathway to the amygdala

faster and conveys less detail

21

Neurons in the ____ have been shown to increase their response to a CS after it is paired with a fear-invoking US

Lateral nucleus of the amygdala

22

A person with amygdala damage who listened to an emotionally arousing story while watching an accompanying slide show remembered

all she pictures equally

23

If we block norepinephrine and have people listen to an emotionally arousing story they will remember

all parts of the story equally

24

Suppose we condition a rat to avoid one corner of the learning chamber by adminsterng a shock whenever the rat is in that corner. If we inject the rat with epinepherine immdiately following the shock, the rat will

wait longer than normal before entering that corner again

25

Damage to the hippocampus

disrupts the ability to learn to make a CR to he context

26

high levels of stress hormones

Can cause cell death in the hipocampus

27

Which of the following has been suggested as a mechanism by which the hippocampus effects fear learning and the amygdala

the hippocampu receives signals from the basolateral, nucleus it returns contextual info from the lateral nucleus

28

Which part of the brain is particularly important for expressing emotions in a socially appropriate manner and interpretting the emotions of others

the prefrontal cortex

29

tpes of emotonal reactions seen in people with frontal lobe damdge suggest that the frontal lobes

maintain a balance between too little and too much emotion

30

while watching a sad movie charolette begins to cry, her husband owen feels just as sad but manages to surpress the urge to cry or express his sadness in front of his wife owen is likely using his _____

prefrontal cortex

31

the failure to extinguish a conditioned response is known as

preservation

32

an excessive and irrational fear of an object place or situation

phobia

33

the case of "Little Albert" fearing a white rat demonstrated that

phopbias can arise from classical conditioning

34

as an adult eva had a nightmare about clowns and she now feels fearful upon seeing clowns as an adult, one explanation for her fear is that

Clowns are a CS tat produce a CR of fear

35

Which of following was true regarding phobias

a person can develop a phobia wihout directly experiencing the feared object or situation

36

what is the theraputic technique in which succesive approximations of a feared stimulus are presented while a pt learns to stay relaxed

systematic desensitization

37

the psychological syndrome that can devlop after a person is exposed to a horrific event is called

ptsd

38

one difference betweeen ptsd and phobias is that

with phobias the fear is triggered by a specific stimulus whereas with ptsd the fear is triggered by a wide variety of stimuli

39

pts with ptsd take______ to extinguish a fear response because cortisol levels are ______ following the trauma

longer ; higher

40

studies using mri and twins have suggested that

people wiht a smaller hipposcampus are predisposed to developing ptsd

41

In observationa larning itis difficult to predict what an organism will learn because

itis not always possible to determine what th organism perceives from the model

42

copying tha involves reproducing motor acts is called

true imitation

43

on year old callie observed her mother eating green means by poking them with a fok ad bringing them to her mouth. Callie icked up a fork, used her fingers to balance some beans on the fork, and brouht them o her mouth. This is a example of:

emulation

44

Payton observed his father raking up leaves in the front yard. Payton proceeded to ge a rake and rake up leaves just like his father did. This is an example of:

tru imitation

45

According to Morgan's canon, the simplest learning mechanism is one that:

is evident in organisms with the least complicated nervous systems

46

The two-action test involves training two animals to perform

two diferent actions leading to the same outcome

47

which of the followin is an example of a tas hat would be required in a two-action test?

Two dolphins are taught t swim t a trainer for a fish reward, on by swimming through a tunnel an the other by swimming ina wiggly path

48

studies of copying in humans an chimpanzees have shown thatemulaton occurs in ____ and true imitation occurs in ____

chimpanzees ndhumand adults; human children

49

When chimpanzees were trained to cpy a behavior whenever a researcher said "DO THIS!" the chimpnzee

could copy many new behaviors

50

perspective taking is an ability tha

is possessed by few species other than humans

51

When cpying involves generating stimuli that can be directly compared with the orignially observed stimuli it is called

stimulus matching

52

dg imitation of speech

a person imitatsmotor actions that are not directly observed

53

what s the most extensive studied from f observationa learning

vocal larning

54

whih of the followin is true regarding vocal learning in songbirds?

the songs thatbirds sing can show differencesa in dialect

55

thefirst phase of song learning in songbirds involves

memorizing songs

56

In which stage of song learning does a songbird prform stimulus matching

the secon stage

57

The only mammals other than humans that can learn to sing a song by hearing it are

whales

58

acording to modern social learning theory, in order for a tnaged boy to learn to do his homework, he must:

observe someone else being rewarded for dog homework

59

if we waned to encourage eght-yea old tina to read who would be the best person to serve as a model?

another eight-year old girl

60

John's friends don'tsmoke, bu many of JOhns favorite movie stars do soke. John has decided to take up smoking. His behavior demonstrates that people are more likely to copy models.

whom they admire

61

One problem with attempting to use Teletubbioes as models is that:

it is not clear that ver young children can remember the behaviorsthaty are meant to imitate

62

The inbron tendency to react eotionally to stimuli that indicate an emotional response by other members of ones species is called

contagion

63

which of the following is true regardingcontagion

the copied reaction is an unconditined response

64

in a nursery if one baby starts crying there is a tendency for th rest of the babies to also start crying THis is an example of

contagon

65

when an individual learns an emotional response after observing others it is known as

observational conditioning

66

Miawent to see a moie withher friend and observed her fried crying during the sad parts. When Mia went to nother movie with her parents he following weekend she began to sry during the sad parts. this is an example o

observational conditiong

67

Direction of one rganisms attenion toward specifc objects, events, or locations within an environmentas a result of another orgnaisms action is called

stimulusenhancement

68

whit was observed that some birds in England were learning to puncture the tops of milk bottles, one explanation was the the birds attention was being drawn to he milk botles. Wich phenomenon does this explanation demonstrate?

stimulus ehancement

69

The process is which an observer learns somethng nw through experiences with others is called

social tranmission of information

70

the tendency to adopt the behavior of the group is known as

social conformity

71

Studies of social tranission of food preferences in rats have shown that:

rats are more likely to eat novel food if they smell the food on another rat's breth after observing the other rat eeating the food

72

which of the following is true regardsnf the ue of active instruction>

there are examples in which nonhuman animals are clearly using active instruction to teach their young

73

whic of the following is true regarding violnt entertainmen and aggressive behavior?

Level of arousal does not seem to play a role in the likelihood of a person behaving aggresively

74

research suggests that viewing violence on TV

can inrese the likelihood that a chld will behave aggresively immediately afterviewing a violent TV show

75

Accoding to the _____ hypothesis memories for perceived actions are stored in the cortical regions that map observed actions onto the motor representations of those actions

direct matching

76

If Kylie wnats to learn how topitc a softall by watching someone elsedo it she must be able to recognize the actions that the mol is erforming. Wich hypothesis predicts that Kylie's visual cortex will be particularly active while sh learns this sill through observation>

visual hypothesis

77

______ neurons respond during both performance of an action and during visal observations of that same action

Mirror

78

Which of the following is true regardng mirror neurons>

some respond most strngly to observation of the outcome rathr than the specific action

79

In monkes mirror neurons

have been demonstrated to be importnat for imiation

80

studies of mirror neurons in humnashaveshown thatcortical activatin is greater when

an action is being guided by observastion of a model than by verbal instructions

81

In humans

there s overla between th cortical regions atvated by performance of an action and by observing thataction bing performed

82

Which of the following ma be a reason hans are better than monkeys at imitation?

monkeys ma have trouble toirng memory of the observed action

83

In a Moris water maze, underwhatcondition are rats with cerebellar still able to find the platform

if they observe other rats doing so before they are lesioned

84

In songbirds what part of the brain controls the production of different levels of song structure

te higher vocal center hvc and the robust nucles of th archistriatum (RA)

85

Disrupting activity in the lateral magnocellular nucles of the anterior neostriatum LMAN regionwhen bird hears its song for th firsttime _____ song leanign

impairs

86

most changes observed insong learing circuits in the brains of song birds occur when the birds are

practicin songs

87

in sogbirds, neurons that behave likie mirror neurons havebeen found in

the robustnucleus of the archistriatum RA

88

wHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS TRU

SONG LEARNNG BUT OT BEHAVIORAL IMITATION REQUIRES STIMULUS MATCHING, SUGGESTNG THAT BEHAVIORAL IMITATION REQUIRES MORE NEURAL SPECIALIZATION THAN VOCAL EARNING

89

when observer rats wer exposed to novel food dor on a demonstrators rat beath an then hd their hippocampus esioned what happened to the lesioned rats preference for thenove foos

ther preference was reduced the most if hte lesion occured 1 day after being exposed to the odor

90

studs of socia transmission of food prefernces inrats have shown that hippocampal lesions results in

retrograde amnesia that is worse for newly acquired memories that for older memories

91

studis of social transmission f food preference in rats have shown hat

damage to the neurons in the basal forebrain that modulate hippocampla activity disrupts previously acquired food prefernces

92

Which of the following is a chaacteristic ofautism

delayed language developmnt

93

repetition o words or phrases immediately after hearingthem spoken isknown as

echolalia

94

autistic children

have problems with perspective taking

95

n inividuls with Asperger's Syndrome are asked to imitate facial expressions

the cortical regions where mirror neurons are likely to be found take longer to become active

96

Which of the following is true regarding people with frotal lobe damage whoexhibit deficits in the baility to imitate?

They have a tenency to imitate actions involuntarily

97

Thefindings with frontal lobe patients who exhibits deficits in the ability to imitate suggests that the fronatl lobes

play a rolein inhibiting imitation

98

Gestational age refers to

time since conception

99

A fetus is suffeciently developed to start perceiving and learning about sounds by about ____ gestional age

25 weeks

100

Research has demonstrated tha humans

can demonstrate learning of basic sounds and lagage befoe they are born

101

tuies in whih infants were conditioned to kick at a mobile to make it move showed that

infant as young as two months could learn his response

102

eyeblink conditioning

can be learned by infants when delay conditioingis used

103

The technique in which infants are shown an action and tested for their ability to mimic this action later is known as

elicited imitation

104

Which of the following appars to develop the latest

working memory

105

the research on the development of episodic and sematic memory discssed in your text book shows that

4 yr olds were especially prone to estra-experimental errors

106

Children's digit spas reach adult levels at around age

14-15 yrs

107

which of the following can increase chidrens' memory spans

using highly familiar stimuli

108

listening to clasical music such as mozart

will have itsbiggest impact on people who like classical music

109

the time period n which learning is most effective is known as

a sensitive period

110

whih ohe following demonstrates the consept fo critical period

if catseye is patched during the first 60 days of its lifeit will be blind inhtat eye

111

the fromation ofattacments to the first individua an rganism sees after brith is knwon as

imprinting

112

which of the following is true?

if an ability is not learned during its critical period it will never be learned

113

stuie ofchildren raised with minimal contact with caregivers have shown that their cgnitive function

rose to normal evels if they were adopted ino a normal home before they were six monthsold

114

whih type of memory seems o be the most mulnerable to decline as adlts age?

working memory

115

Apersons digi span

drosp sl;ightly in elderly adults

116

at whatage dws eyeblink conditioning start o decline

40

117

which of the following is true regardingskill learnng

people who are experts continue to improve their skill even into old age

118

which o the following peoples skill will be mot resistant to decline in older adulthood?

Courtney, who is a professional chef

119

which of the followin would elderly individuals have the most difficult with?

a paried associate test o memory

120

Each rungof the ladder in dna structure is called a

base pair

121

Humans have _____ pairs of chromosomes

23

122

____ base pairs will bedifferent in theDNA of any two unrelated humnas

.1%

123

Accidnetal change in the DNA sequence is known as

mutations

124

people with _____ perform worse on learning and memory test thn peoople with ____

2 copies of met allele; 2 copies of the val allele

125

he most common veriosn of the BDNF gene is the

val allele

126

Whihc of the followings true regaring the 5-htar gene?

it encodes instructions for building receptor for seritonin

127

when tyron 1940 trained maze brigt rats togeter hefound that

with each generationa the rats offspring mdefewer errors

128

what has been suggestedby research on fraternal and identical twins

more than half ofthe variation in memory scores may be accounted for by differences in genetic make up

129

one study showed that taxi rivers in london had ____ than age matched comtrols

a larger hippocampus

130

theprcessof neuronal birth is caled

neurogenisis

131

which f the following is true regarding neurogensisi

it occurs befre glial cells are born

132

during apoptosis

about 1/3 of the neurons die

133

which of the following is true

myelineation does not begin until after birth

134

which of the followng is true regarding syaptogenesis

it continues throughout the ifespan

135

research on using stem cells to improve problems associated with Parkinson's disease has shown that

stem ells could not be foced to grow into a desired form

136

men generally perfom better htan women on tasksinvolving

spatial learnging

137

In adult females the primary sex hormone is

estrgen

138

testosterone

is converted into estradiol

139

which part ofthe bain is proortionately larger in men than in women

angular gyus

140

in women the ____ is proportionately larger than in men, and thi is reflected in women's superior performance on _____ tass

lateral frontal cortex; working memory

141

studies of the effects of sex hormones in adults have shown that

estrogen may stimulae neuronal growth an LTP in the hippocampus

142

which of the folowing does not occcur in the brain in old age

neurons in the cerebral cortex show less connectivity

143

in old age the

ability to maintain changes in synapse strength may be reucded

144

which of the followingis true regarding neurogenesis

in primates it has only been unambiguougsly documented in a few bran regions

145

in individuals with down syndrome

have smaller than normal cerebellum n adlescence

146

ts65dn mice who are bred as a model of down syndro

show improved patal memory when housed in an enrihed environment

147

which type of memory ability is ususally the first to show signs of impairment with alzheimer's disease

episodic memory

148

which of the following is true regarding alsheimers disease

pats retaind the ability to learn new skills

149

ayloidplaques

may casue damage by stimulating the immune system

150

neuofibrillary tangels

first accumulate in the hippocampus of Alzheimrs pts

151

muttions on the ____ gene seem to heighten the risk of late-onset alzheimers disease

gsto1 guto

152

people with _____ hve a higher risk for developing alzheimers disease than people with _____

two e4 alleles' one e3 and one e4 allee

153

a mutation in the _____ gene may contribute to the neuronal damage in Alzheimer paients by mobilizing theimmune system

sto1 gusto

154

which gene has been implicated in both early onset alzheimers and Dow syndrome

app

155

which of the following is true

in dulthood neary all individuals with down syndroem develop amyloid plaques and neurofibrilliary tangels

156

azheimer's drugs that inhibit cholinesterase

treatcognitive symptoms such as forgetfulness

157

peple who _____ has a decreased risk of developing Alzheimers dsease

have a high education level