human anatomy chapter 11

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Human Anatomy
Chapter 11
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1

Appendicular muscles are responsible for: (4)

1. Stabilizing the pectoral and pelvic girdles
2. Moving the upper and lower limbs
3. Absorbing shocks and jolts as you walk, run, or jump
4. Aiding in strengthening the joint area

2

1. Appendicular muscles
-Accounts for roughly ___ % of the skeletal muscles in the body
2. Two major groups of appendicular muscles:

1. 40
2. A. pectoral girdle and upper limbs
B. pelvic girdle and lower limbs

3

Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle: Function

1. The structure of the joint
2. The location of the insertion of the muscle
3. The range of motion of a joint
4. The type of joint
A. Monaxial
B. Biaxial
C. Triaxial

4

Muscles associated with the pectoral girdle and upper limbs can be divided into four groups:

1. Muscles that position the pectoral girdle
2. Muscles that move the arm
3. Muscles that move the forearm and hand
4. Muscles that move the hand and fingers

5

Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle

These muscles also coordinate with the muscles that move the arm

6

Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle (7)

1. Levator Scapulae
2. ectoralis minor
3. Rhomboid major
4. Rhomboid minor
5. Serratus anterior
6. Subclavius
7. Trapezius

7
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1. trapezius 2. deltoid
3. rhomboid major 4. rhomboid minor
5. triceps brachii

8

Muscles That Move the Arm (anterior)(4)

1. coracobrachialis
2. deltoid
3. pectoralis major
4. biceps crachii

9

Muscles That Move the Arm (anterior)
1. coracobrachialis
2. deltoid
3. pectoralis major
4. biceps brachii

1. adduction at the shoulder
2. abducts the arm
3. adducts and medially rotates the arm
4. flexes the lower arm

10
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1. coracobrachialis
2. deltoid
3. pectoralis major
4. biceps brachii

11

Muscles That Move the Arm (posterior)(7)

1. supraspinatus 2. infraspinatus
3. subscapularis 4. teres major
5. teres minor 6. triceps brachii
7. latissimus dorsi

12

Muscles That Move the Arm (posterior)(7)
1. supraspinatus 2. infraspinatus
3. subscapularis 4. teres major
5. teres minor 6. triceps brachii
7. latissimus dorsi

1. abduction at the shoulder
2. lateral rotation at the shoulder
3. medial rotation at the shoulder
4. extension and medial rotation at the shoulder
5. adduction and lateral rotation at the shoulder
6. extension of the lower arm
7. adduction and medial rotation at the shoulder

13
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1. supraspinatus 2. infraspinatus
3. subscapularis 4. teres major
5. teres minor 6. triceps brachii
7. latissimus dorsi

14

Action Line of Muscles
1. when a muscle
2. the direction the muscle moves

1. it develops tension
2. upon developing tension is known as the action line

15

Action Line of Muscles
3. Action lines that cross
A. Flexors
B. Extensors
C. adductors (Medial rotators)
D. Abductors (lateral rotators)

A. The anterior aspect of a joint
B. The posterior aspect of a joint
C. The medial aspect of a joint
D. The lateral aspect of a joint

16

Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand
1. Most of these muscles originate on the
2. Exceptions include (2)

1. humerus and insert upon the forearm and wrist
2. A. Long head of triceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts on the olecranon
B. Long head of biceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts of the radial tuberosity of the radius

17

Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand
1. anconeus
2. Triceps brachii
A. Lateral Head
B. Long Head
C. Medial Head
3. pronator quadratus
4. Pronator teres
5. Supinator

1. extension at the elbow
2. A. extension at the elbow
B. extension at the elbow and adduction at the shoulder
C. extension at the elbow
3. pronates the forearm
4. pronates the forarm
5. supinates the forarm

18
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1. Coracobrachialis 2. biceps brachii (ling)
3. Biceps brachii (short) 4. triceps brachii (long)
5. triceps brachii(short) 6. brachialis
7. pronator teres 8. brachioradialis
9. flexor capri radialis 10. flexor capri ulnaris
11. flexor digitorum superficialis
12. pronator quadratus 13. flecor retinaculum

19
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1. extensor capri ulnaris
2. abductor pollicis longus
3. flexor capri ulnaris
4. extensor digitorum
5. extensor pollicis brevis

20
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1. supinator 2. radius
3. ulna 4. pronator teres
5. pronator quadratus

21

Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand
6. flexor carpi radialis
7. flexor carpi ulnaris
8. palmaris longus
9. Extensor carpi radialis longus
10. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
11. Extensor carpi ulnaris

6. flex and abduct the wrist
7. flex and adduct the wrist
8. flexion at the wrist
9. extend and abduct at the wrist
10. extend and abduct at the wrist
11. extension and adduction at the wrist

22

Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand
1. relatively large muscles that perform...
2. providesss
3. These muscles are....

1. flexion and extension at the joints of the fingers
2. strength and crude control of the hand and fingers
3. found mostly in the lower arm

23

Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
1. smaller muscles that
2. responsible for..
3. responsible for...
4. these muscles are found mostly in the...

1. provide fine control of hand
2. flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints
3. opposition and reposition of the thumb
4. palm or the dorsum of the hand

24

Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand
1. flexor digitorum superficialis
2. flexor digitorum profundus
3. flexor pollicis longus
4. abductor pollicis longus
5. extensor digitorum
6. extensor pollicis brevis
7. extensor indicis
8. extensor digiti minimi

1. flexion at the wrist and some digits
2. flexion at the wrist and some digits
3. flexion of the thumb
4. abduction of thumb
5. extension of fingers and wrist
6. extension of thumb, abducts the wrist
7. extension and adduction of index finger
8. extension of little finger, extension of wrist

25
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1. pronator teres 2. brachioradialis
3. flexor carpi ulnaris
4. flexor digitorum superficialis
5. flexor pollicis longus

26

Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
1. adductor pollicis
2. opponens pollicis
3. paalmaris brevis
4. abductor digiti minimi
5. abductor pollicis brevis

1. adducts the thumb
2. opposition of the thumb
3. moves the skin on the medial side of the palm
4. abducts little finger
5. abducts the thumb

27

Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
6. flexor pollicis brevis
7. flexor digiti minimi brevis
8. opponens digiti minimi
9.lumbricals
10. dorsal interosseus
11. palmar interosseus

6. flex and adduct thumb
7. flex little finger
8. brings digits into opposition with the thumb
9. flexion of the digits
10. abduction of digits 2–4
11. adduction of digits 2, 4, and 5

28
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1. adductor pollicis 2. opponens pollicis
3. paalmaris brevis 4. abductor digiti minimi
5. abductor pollicis brevis
6. flexor pollicis brevis
7. flexor digiti minimi brevis
8. opponens digiti minimi 9.lumbricals
10. dorsal interosseus 11. palmar interosseus

29

Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
1. the muscles of the lower limbs are _____ than those of the upper lims
2. they are divided into 3 categories

1. larger and more powerful
2. A. Muscles that move the thigh
B. Muscles that move the leg
C. Muscles that move the foot and toes

30

Muscles That Move the Thigh
1. Originate on the...
2. four groups

1. pelvis; many are large and powerful
2. A. Gluteal group
B. Lateral rotator group
C. Adductor group
D. Iliopsoas group

31

the gluteal group
1. Gluteus maximus
2. Gluteus medius
3. Gluteus minimus
4. Tensor fasciae latae

1. posterior extension at the hip
2. abduction at the hip
3. abduction at the hip
4. abduction at the hip

32
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1. gluteus maximus 2. adductor magnus
3. gracilis 4. biceps femoris (long)
5. gluteus medius 6. gluteus minimus

33

The Lateral Rotator Group
(4)

1. obturators
2. piriformis
3. Gemelli
4. Quadratus femoris

34

The Lateral Rotator Group
1. obturators
2. piriformis
3. Gemelli
4. Quadratus femoris

1. lateral rotation and abduction of hip
2. lateral rotation and abduction of hip
3. lateral rotation and abduction of hip
4. lateral rotation of hip

35

the gluteal group (4)

1. Gluteus maximus
2. Gluteus medius
3. Gluteus minimus
4. Tensor fasciae latae

36

the adductor group (5)

1. adductor brevis
2. adductor longus
3. adductor magnus
4. pectineus
5. Gracilis

37

the adductor group
1. adductor brevis
2. adductor longus
3. adductor magnus
4. pectineus
5. Gracilis

1. adduction at the hip
2. adduction and medial rotation at the hip
3. adduction at the hip
4. flexion and adduction at the hip
5. flexion and medial rotation at the knee/adduction and medial rotation at the hip

38
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1. pectineus

39

The Iliopsoas Group (2)

1. Iliacus
2. Psoas major

40

The Iliopsoas Group
1. Iliacus
2. Psoas major

1. flexion at the hip
2. flexion at the hip

41

Muscles That Move the Leg
Extensors of the Knee
1. vastus intermedius\
2. vastus lateralis \___ 5. _____
3. vastus medialis /
4. rectus femoris /

1. extends the lower leg
2. extends the lower leg
3. extends the lower leg
4. extends the lower leg/flexion at the hip
5. quadriceps femoris

42

Muscles That Move the Leg
Flexors of the Knee
1. biceps femoris \
2. semimembranosus \
3. semitendinosus \_____6. ____
4. sartorius /
5. popliteus /

1. flexes lower leg/extension at the hip
2. flexes lower leg
3. flexes the lower leg
4. allows crossing of the lower leg
5. flexes lower leg
6. hamstrings

43
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...

44
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...

45

Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
1. Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot and Toes
2. Intrinsic Muscles of the Toes

1. Muscles that originate on the lower leg but yet move the foot and toes
2. Muscles that originate on some aspect of the foot but yet move the toes

46

Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot

1. Tibialis anterior

47

Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot
1. tibialis anterior
2. gastrucnemius
3. fibularis brevis
4. fibularis longus
5. plantaris
6. soleus
7. tibialis posterior

1. dorsiflexion of the foot
2. plantar flexion of the foot
3. eversion of the foot
4. eversion of the foot
5. plantar flexion
6. plantar flexion
7. inversion of the foot

48
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...

49
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...

50
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...

51

Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
8. flexor digitorum longus
9. flexor hallucis longus
10. Extensor digitorum longus
11. Extensor hallucis longus

8. flexion of toes 2–5
9. flexion of the hallux
10. extension of toes 2–5
11. extension of the hallux

52
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...

53
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...

54

Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
1. Extensor digitorum brevis
2. abductor hallucis
3. flexor digitorum brevis
4. abductor digiti minimi
5. quadratus plantae
6. lumbricals

1. extension of toes 1–4
2. abduction of the hallux
3. flexion of toes 2–5
4. abduction of the little toe
5. flexion of toes 2–5
6. extension of toes 2–5

55
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...

56

Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Toes
1. flexor hallucis brevis
2. adductor hallucis
3. flexor digiti minimi brevis
4. dorsal interossei
5. plantar interossei

1. flexion of the hallux
2. adducts the hallux
3. flexion of the little toe
4. abduction of toes 3 and 4
5. adduction of toes 3-5

57
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...

58
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...

59
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...

60

Compartments of the Arm
1. The Anterior Compartment of the Arm (3)
2. The Posterior Compartment of the Arm

1. A. Biceps Brachii
B. Brachialis
C. Coracobrachialis
2. Triceps brachii

61

Compartments of the Forearm
The Anterior Superficial Compartment (5)

1. Flexor carpi redialis
2. flexor carpi ulnaris
3. flexor digitorum superficialis
4. palmaris longus
5. pronator teres

62

Compartments of the Forearm
The Anterior Deep Compartment (3)

1. flexor digitorum profundus
2. flexor pollicis longus
3. pronator quadratus

63

Compartments of the Forearm
The Lateral Compartment (3)

1. brachioradialis
2. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
3. Extensor carpi radialis longus

64

Compartments of the Forearm
The Posterior Compartment (9)

1. Abductor pollicis longus 2. Anconeus
3. Extensor carpi ulnaris 4. Extensor digitorum
5. Extensor digiti minimi 6. Extensor indicis
7. Extensor pollicis brevis
8. Extensor pollicis longus 9. Supinator

65

Compartments of the Lower Limb
The Thigh (3)

1. Anterior compartment (or extensor compartment)
2. Medial compartment (adductor compartment)
3. Posterior compartment (or flexor compartment)

66

Compartments of the Lower Limb
The Leg (3)

1. Anterior compartment
2. Lateral compartment
3. Posterior compartment (superficial and deep)

67

Compartments of the Thigh
Anterior compartment (3)

1. Iliopsoas
2. Quadriceps femoris
3. Sartorius

68

Compartments of the Thigh
Medial compartment (6)

1. Pectineus
2. Adductor brevis
3. Adductor longus
4. Adductor magnus
5. Gracilis
6. Obturator externus

69

Compartments of the Thigh
Posterior compartment (1)

1. Hamstrings

70

Compartments of the Leg (3)

1. Anterior compartment
2. Lateral compartment
3. Posterior compartment

71

Compartments of the Leg
Anterior compartment (4)

1. Extensor digitorum longus
2. Extensor hallucis longus
3. Fibularis tertius
4. Tibialis anterior

72

Compartments of the Leg
Lateral compartment (2)

1. fibularis brevis
2. fibularis longus

73

Compartments of the Leg
Posterior compartment (superficial) (3)

1. Gastrocnemius
2. Plantaris
3. Soleus

74

Compartments of the Leg
Posterior compartment (deep)(4)

1. Flexor digitorum longus
2. Flexor hallucis longus
3. Popliteus
4. Tibialis posterior