Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology

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created 9 years ago by toare_arksn
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This text book is based on the clinical view and concepts of the human anatomy and physiology.
Grade levels:
College: First year
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1

Define anatomy and physiology

Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body.
Physiology is the study of the function of how organisms perform vital activities.

2

Identify the major levels of organization in organisms, from the simplest to the most complex.

1. The chemical, or molecular level
2. The cellular level
3. The tissue level
4. The organ level
5. The organ system level
6. The organism level

3

Directional terms:

1. Anterior or ventral

The front or before
e.g. the naval is on the anterior surface of the trunk

4

2. Posterior or dorsal

The back or behind
e.g. the shoulder is located posterior to the rib cage

5

3. Superior

Above or at a higher level (toward the head)
e.g. the eyes are superior to the nose

6

4. Inferior

Below or at a lower level
e.g. the knees are inferior to the hips

7

5. Medial

In the middle of
e.g. The heart is medial to the lungs

8

6. lateral

Away from
e.g. The lungs are lateral to the heart

9

7. Proximal

Toward an attached base
e.g. The thigh is proximal to the foot; moving proximally from the wrist brings you to the elbow

10

8. Distal

Away from an attached base
e.g. the fingers are distal to the wrist

11

9. Superficial

At, near or relatively close to the body surface
e.g. the skin is superficial to underlying structures