3.9 Flashcards

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Concrete Operational Stage

No longer demonstrate limitations from
preoperational stage
¤ Dual representation
¤ Egocentrism
¤ Conservation
¤ Hierarchical classification
we no longer show limitation in dual repersintaion so viewing things as an oblect or a simpole.
Egocentrism we not only focuse just in our own perspective are theory of mind is well developed
conservation we no longer focuse on one aspact of a sean or a senareio called constraton
and hierachical classification, we are much better at grouping and ungroping things based on criteria


kids in the concrete Operational Stage can correctly oder items

¤ Children can correctly order items
Children can solve transitive inference
problems (i.e., problems that require mental
¤ Stick A is longer than Stick B
¤ Stick B is longer than Stick C
so if i ask you to but the diffrent stikes togther longer to shordest, you would have put stick C first then B the A.
this is the order that comes in about the difftent people and how evolved they are
so megain is taller then jeff, jeff is taller then joe who is taller magain or joe, magin right. because meain is the tallist hear
so the type of problem is called a transitive infrence
this is when children have to sereate mentalliy or order items in there head. so is not just placed infront of them now, they have to hold information in there working memory in older to aceretly consume.
sereating means putting things in order
staik A is longer then stick Band staick B is longer then stick C. which is loger stick A or stick C. stick A right
you have to place people on the number line or visilize it


Concrete Operational Stage

Create cognitive
¤ Become more
organized with
¤ Older children
able to use scale
we also can create conative maps
so we start to repersent the world more often in our mind. these maps become more orginized with age and children evechilly able to use scales to draw maps. so for example in inch on your paper repersent a mile in your naberhood
we know that there is diffrences in cognative map ability depentend on your exprencies. so for children who are dreven placement of mejorety of time, who are not out on there bickes walking or running and doing things outdoors like sports.
for kinds that are driven everwere we see a more rode sentect map. it
driving a child to see things is more erben
bicked or walked is more sub-erben


piagits theory Concrete Operational Stage:

Logical thinking
¤ Do not systematically test
we are looking at limitations we know kids are passing convesational task at this poinp . there able to group and ungroup items pertty easily. we know that there thery of mind becomes will develope. but what are they not good at now. will first abstrac thoughts. there are not be grate at coming up with vasterio world or theoryies that imagenation might not be as eliqwite as it could be in later years,
adeshinlly if we have those trasidife infrance questions were you are mentlilly sereate items or but them in order. they may not be able to apply that to a more absract concept. like people or hight, or trin location which train gets first those things are still developing and it takes little waule to practice that apstrac thought.
adenshinally we got thinking in contract to our own belifes. we are just coming out of that egosinidrim face, were we are focused on our own selves and our own perspective or perfrances. so coming out that it may be a little more defecult to think beyound what we know or what we used to, evenchilly will be able to think in contract for our belifs easpechilly in our adelessions
and then logical thinking we are not be able to test our hypotesis pertty will. so if our cokkies bern in the oven we may not know egsakly why it was bernd or were we went wrong. as adults we know that there might be alot of reason of why that happen, the oven was too hot or you left the cookies too long.
so kids 7 to 11 may not be that graded logicatil or systemic thinking prossess, but those middle school or elementry sience classes are going to boster that ability or behavore


According to Piaget, children are first
able to ____ in middle childhood.
A.Complete conservation tasks
B. Think in an abstract way
C. Understand object permanence
D. Combine multiple schemes

Complete conservation tasks


Madison has developed an ability called
transitive inference. This means Madison
A. Draw maps to scale
B. Classify three relations at once
C. Readily read maps of extended outdoor
D. Seriate mentally

. Seriate mentally
hold information in minds and put thinks in order in our head rader out on the table


working memory task

i am asking you esinchilly to hold information in mind and then to put it back on paper. so being able to keep things in your core front of you mind while doing a diffrent task or when you ask to delay. this is called digit span test.

at age 7 to 11 we are not super grate at this task. so thinking about age 5 . kind of our first digit ability. our first woking memory is to learn about 3 numbers. by age 10 we can learn 5 numbers. so just between ages 5 and 10 we got massive change. at least we are thinking in abiliyu to remember items in a short span of time. from 10 to 11 or 12 we are havering still in that five mark by 15 we aare up to 6. the maxsemim digit spam for a humen is about 7 numbers. so this should be you SSI number or phonne number. these are easily recallible values. so we are going to see that digit spam moves very stable until we reeach age 60, which makes seans with the cognative incline related to age. but in this section our woking memory is diffrenly developing


processing speed visual search task

this is finding the errors and tesing upir prcesing spead how quickly you can point out somthing that is not like the rest.

color is easyer processed

over time our processing time is faster and faster. if we are at age 8 we are pertty slow, but by the time we reach age 12 or 13 we are reaching that maxsimim speed for this section of life spand. we knodice processing speed is pertty cwick once we hit 12 or 13 all the wayto aduit.


Executive Functioning

mental rowtation being able to see an object or shap and change it in your mind. so going from a squre to a diement, you have to rowtated

mental addtion how quicklu you can add and subtract and tapping, how can you tap you finger all of this connects to executive functioning a wide set of operations and strategies confidenly that help us acheve goals and we are at the school age now we are pertty welform at this point to be ready and adaptiple learners that is about 7 to 11 rage so 2nd to 5th grade. and during this time we see genral improvment in attention and cognative fiexibility. so at this point you have multiple subjects in school that you take up to 45 mint up to an houre per day maybe more then that with each subject rader then in kedergarden or pre-K you got diffrent activites that may atract with the subject but you are doing alot of things for short amont of time


Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Industry vs. Inferiority 6-11 years

Crisis: Acquire culturally important skills

so can you learn how to read or write within that write idea, can you give me a paragraph a story, can you answer a jornal promt. map, you are starding to engae in extrocilculum activity, sports, music and you are showlizing a bet. at this age you are in the same grade with alot of the same people you might not be nesessry in the same class every year, but you are starting to develp those close relashinsips with people you see everyday and to actully be social rather then just plantice


¨ Self-concept and self-esteem

self concept how we fit in within the group, how we viwe ourselves compare to other peiople, when we are in the middle of the childhood we are more relastic about what we can and cant do. compare to early childhood we are unrelistic positive about everuthing, we thing fot the best , but onece we reach that 7 to 8 brain we starting to see that other pepole are good at thinking too and potinchilly are better then us or worse. thats when social compracen comes in.

and then higer order concepts start to form who is athlitic, who is poplular, who is smart. this is in the macro concept of your classes, who you see everday, and how those social structures fit into the mind.

we know that these structures come about the repersintation peer evlautions. so not only how you feel about yourself , but how do people around you tened to think of u. do they think of you as the smart one, or athltic one or both.



a personal evaluation of your
self-worth and the emotions associated with
that evaluation
¤ Middle childhood based on
n Academic competence
n Athletic competence
n Social competence
n Physical appearance

we are looking at personal evaluation of self-worth and the emotions associted with evauiation. so self-esteam is how you feel about you and that can be based on alot of diffrent things.

we gonna see competence porponamit of self-estem here. so how are you doing acedemicly athlictly , socialy.

we also see phisical appperance. we start to knowdist what kids look like, what kids were within our classroom. whst cloths are cool. what kids look diffrent from other kids. body image what the expectation in going into adelessons. this is were we have kids think about those things rader then egnoring them or keeping them very posetive



we are at our lowest self-esteem wise when we are going from ages 9 to 12 up to 13 to 17. so our personal evauation starts out really good espeshilly in middle childhood year. we understand that we have value in our group and kids are not as mean until early year. they might not be as critical until they reach those 4th and 6th grade. we see a sharp decline from age 9 to 12 and age 13 to 17 all the way to 18 to 22



Factors that influence self-esteem
¤ Culture
n é Western (e.g., U.S.) than Eastern (e.g., Japan)
¤ Gender stereotypes
n Girls é language arts self-esteem
n Boys é math self-esteem
¤ Parenting

culture and wetern culture, we have that senral around indivilism. somtimes that indiviual idea leads to higer self-estam. we think that we are grate on our own with our own trates.

within eastern culturas is more related to your group standing, which can be diffcult if you are not super high performing.

gender steroytype ralted to academic. gril and boys differ on what they feel, your good at or what influnce there self-estem. girls are tepiclly more socilized around that socil studies languge arts idea were you are good at writing, reading, or factual information. were as boys are better at those sightefic math related, inereing related idea. these are steriotepic answers. but in most reason years there is a winding of spectrum of what to you want to do. there is plenty of oppunity for people to enter the crears goal they are intersted in and for those that been previousy morgenised things in blace to assit them through that processes.

parenting is supper imporant



Factors that influence self-esteem
¤ Culture
n é Western (e.g., U.S.) than Eastern (e.g., Japan)
¤ Gender stereotypes
n Girls é language arts self-esteem
n Boys é math self-esteem
¤ Parenting
n é warm, authoritative
¤ Achievement attributions/mindset

in the video we know that there is some diynamics here. we know that dad is not very frienly or supportive. we know that this is demanizing and very crtical nature. it is not very benafial for anybody. when we exprince these as a kid we interise these monologs like, i feel like my world are not imporant, or what i try to explin is not being herd and that can carry on into auilthood. we feel like we cannot speack out aginst cretizided or taken advange of

so how do we compack this, how can we not be cregs dad. we can be warm, and authoritative. so what that means is that we offer our perental guidenice, parental support and we set expectation or bownders, so when we are stting and doing homework together if you get frastrated because you cant do your problem corectly or you are making a mistack. maybe our bondry is we are taking a step back from the table, you take a deep brath outside and you come back and still finsh out your homework. so i expect you to finsh this before denner, but we give them some freedom to take a brack, calm back down relaglate, come back with the problem with a frish mind or you offer assistance after a kid does it twice and still miss it up.

there are expetations that say, okay i am not going to do this for you but i am also not going to leave you henging . somewere in the middle somewere in that vigasky and perspective we want that zoon aproksemoal development we want to meet kids were there at.



¨ Achievement attributions/mindset
¤ é Growth than fixed mindset
¤ Growth mindset:
n Mastery-oriented attributions
n Performance can be improved with effort
n Failures can be overcome
¤ Fixed mindset
n Learned helplessness
n Performance is fixed, little you can do to improve


Based on what we’ve talked about in
class, which mindset do you think is
linked to higher self-esteem?
A. Fixed mindset
B. Growth mindset


a growth mindset is mastry focuse, we know that proformace can be improved if we practice. and falyers can be overcomed when it happens. this mindset is tepical among athourtative parents because they know that kid cant always get it right first try. you are potting yourself out there and if you filed hopefully you have that person to comr back to. that more supportive einvarment, so that is grate for kids that self- esteam, that atonomy, intepandice, cerepility mindset there.

fixed minset is the alternative. if you learn the term learn helplessness before, it may be in a context of insted parner voince or demistec volince. the brother idea is the more you exprince a nenative input, or negative stemilight the less likely you are to expect anything else or if something else presented to you for you to go after it, so for the dog it was a cage with a shock. so is kind of an abuse, it keeps it in the cycle reader letting that person to breath,

we can also learn helpnissess in a cognative set. if you think you are so bad at math and you are reinforcing that idea, because perents till you, you are alful at math, you are a brate, that is going to influance weather or not feel like you should try. if you get that consted narative that you are the problem you are goinh to give up right away, you dont want to take on that adetinal shame and in this instned you might think your profomance is fixed, you cant improve your ability to do math, but we know cognativly that given time exprenice practice and support you can change your mindset. so is the idea that you can teach an old dog new trikes. we know noroplacity is a thing there is plinty evegental pathways to till us we can or cant get better. so growth mindset is good