Campbell Biology Ch 40 PT MB

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Campbell Biology
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Chapter 40 Practice Test Mastering Biology
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1

Which of the following is a question about physiology?
A)Are there any living birds with claws on the ends of their wings?
B)Do salamanders and frogs have the same number of toes on their front feet?
C)Do baleen whales have teeth?
D)Is it true that apes do not have fleshy tails like monkeys?
E)How is blood pressure affected by physical activity?

E)How is blood pressure affected by physical activity?

2

Most cells are microscopic because at this small size _____.
A)the ratio of surface area to cell volume is maximized
B)many more cells can be packed into an organ while maintaining its compact size
C)free-living unicellular organisms are difficult for predatory organisms to detect and capture
D)smaller cells require fewer nutrients and increase the probability of survival
E)the amount of vulnerable plasma membrane is minimized relative to that of a larger, more stable cytoplasm

A)the ratio of surface area to cell volume is maximized

3

Which of the following is a benefit of multicellularity compared to organisms consisting of just one cell?
A)Single-celled organisms can grow to larger sizes than multicellular organisms.
B)Single-celled organisms are simpler and thus less likely to experience breakdown or disease.
C)Cells can specialize.
D)All cells in a multicellular organism can perform all metabolic functions, thus maximizing metabolism.
E)Single-celled organisms can form tissues

C)Cells can specialize.

4

Which of these is most likely a characteristic of a large but NOT small aquatic animal?
A)most cells exposed to a fluid medium
B)two-layered or thin body
C)extensive branching of internal respiratory surfaces
D)intracellular food digestion
E)adequate exposed plasma membrane for exchange with the environment

C)extensive branching of internal respiratory surfaces

5

Interstitial fluid is _____.
A)any fluid inside the body
B)found only in the interior of compartments such as the heart and stomach
C)another name for the blood
D)the fluid that fills the spaces between cells of vertebrates
E)any place beneath the skin

D)the fluid that fills the spaces between cells of vertebrates

6

Food processing, absorption, and distribution in your body are mainly accomplished by the _____ systems.
A)integumentary and excretory
B)endocrine and integumentary
C)respiratory and circulatory
D)digestive and circulatory
E)immune and lymphatic

D)digestive and circulatory

7

Which of the following systems is correctly paired with one of its parts?
A)circulatory system ... lung
B)endocrine system ... thyroid gland
C)respiratory system ... heart
D)excretory system ... intestine
E)integumentary system ... kidneys

B)endocrine system ... thyroid gland

8

An organ such as the heart or liver consists of _____.
A)connective tissue
B)epithelial tissue
C)nervous tissue
D)muscle tissue
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

E)All of the listed responses are correct.

9

An organism is to an albatross as a(n) _____ is to an intestine.
A)cell
B)organ system
C)organism
D)tissue
E)organ

E)organ

10

An epithelial cell with a relatively large amount of cytoplasm probably has what function?
A)regeneration and rapid tissue replacement
B)absorption and secretion
C)debris collection
D)anchorage for the basement membrane
E)abrasion resistance

B)absorption and secretion

11

Which of the following are types of cells found in epithelial tissues?
A)neurons
B)chondrocytes and osteocytes
C)erythrocytes and platelets Which of the following are types of cells found in epithelial tissues?
D)fibroblasts and osteoblasts
E)squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells

E)squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells

12

Where in the body would you be most likely to find secretory cells shaped like dice? A)respiratory tract
B)intestines
C)blood vessels
D)surface of the skin
E)thyroid and salivary glands

E)thyroid and salivary glands

13

Which of the following tissues bind and support other tissues in the body?
A)skin
B)muscle tissue
C)nervous tissue
D)epithelial tissue
E)connective tissues

E)connective tissues

14

Microscopic analysis of an unknown tissue sample reveals the presence of chondrocytes, indicating that the sample was probably taken from _____ tissue.
A)stratified columnar epithelium
B)adipose
C)loose connective tissue
D)cartilage
E)bone

D)cartilage

15

The matrix of blood tissue, where water, salts, and dissolved proteins are found, is _____.
A)a form of loose connective tissue
B)the outer covering of the blood vessels
C)the blood plasma
D)dense with collagen and other protein fibers
E)the red and white blood cells

C)the blood plasma

16

Which of the six major types of connective tissue has a rigid matrix that contains collagen and calcium salts?
A)adipose
B)loose connective
C)fibrous connective
D)bone
E)cartilage

D)bone

17

Ligaments are what kind of connective tissue?
A)specialized for holding bone to muscle
B)a type of adipose connective tissue
C)a type of fibrous connective tissue
D)a type of loose connective tissue
E)a type of cartilage connective tissue

C)a type of fibrous connective tissue

18

Cells that secrete the proteins that make cartilage strong yet flexible are called _____.
A)stem cells
B)osteons
C)chondrocytes
D)fibroblasts
E)adipocytes

C)chondrocytes

19

Ligaments connect _____ to _____.
A)muscle ... bone
B)tendon ... tendon
C)tendon ... bone
D)muscle ... tendon
E)bone ... bone

E)bone ... bone

20

Which of the following are connective tissues?
A)adipose tissue, dense and loose connective tissues, and neurons
B)red blood cells and neurons
C)cartilage, bone, and epithelium
D)bone, blood, and skin
E)adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood

E)adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood

21

Bone cells are called _____.
A)osteocytes
B)osteoblasts
C)erythrocytes
D)neurons
E)chondrocytes

A)osteocytes

22

"Striated" is a description that would apply to which kind of animal tissue?
A)skin
B)muscle
C)epithelium
D)nervous
E)connective

B)muscle

23

Myosin and actin are _____.
A)part of a negative feedback loop
B)types of skeletal muscle
C)found localized in intercalated disks
D)unique to cardiac muscle
E)proteins that play a major role in muscle contraction

E)proteins that play a major role in muscle contraction

24

A neuron consists of _____.
A)sarcomeres, axons, and dendrites
B)effectors, actin, and striated muscle fibers
C)a cell body, dendrites, and axons
D)a cell body, matrix, and myosin
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

C)a cell body, dendrites, and axons

25

The _____ system and the _____ system work together to coordinate and control the bodies of most animals.
A)nervous ... endocrine
B)nervous ... circulatory
C)endocrine ... immune
D)circulatory ... digestive
E)circulatory ... respiratory

A)nervous ... endocrine

26

Hormones _____.
A)are relatively slow acting
B)are distributed by the bloodstream
C)act only on cells with receptors specific to that hormone
D)are chemical signals broadcast throughout the body
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

E)All of the listed responses are correct.

27

Which of the following is a characteristic of the nervous system but not the endocrine system?
A)Signals are often long-lasting.
B)Signaling usually involves more than one type of signal.
C)Signals generally coordinate gradual changes that affect the entire body.
D)Signals travel slowly, often taking many seconds to have an effect.
E)The signal is broadcast throughout the body

B)Signaling usually involves more than one type of signal.

28

Which of the following best illustrates homeostasis?
A)DNA stores the genetic information in a cell.
B)All the cells in the body have much the same chemical composition.
C)All organs are composed of the same four kinds of tissues.
D)When blood CO2 increases, you breathe faster, ridding the body of excess CO2.
E)The lung has a large surface for exchange of gases.

D)When blood CO2 increases, you breathe faster, ridding the body of excess CO2.

29

Negative feedback is a method of homeostatic control that _____.
A)increases the speed and rapidity of negative responses
B)produces a response by lowering some set point of an organism's metabolism
C)promotes decreases, rather than increases, in metabolism
D)counteracts a change in a condition by causing the change to either moderate or stop
E)causes an effector to signal the control center of an organism, which creates the stimulus to make a response

D)counteracts a change in a condition by causing the change to either moderate or stop

30

Which of the following is a function of your circadian rhythm?
A)Your sweat glands secrete sweat and your blood vessels dilate after receptors detect an increase in your core body temperature.
B)Your body produces more red blood cells at higher elevations.
C)Your body temperature rises and falls every day.
D)Following tissue damage, injured tissue releases chemicals to attract platelets to initiate the clotting process. The process is amplified by the secretion of more platelet-attracting chemicals from the existing platelets.
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

C)Your body temperature rises and falls every day.

31

When we talk of feedback systems, the word "stimulus" means _____.
A)a signal from the internal environment
B)any signal passed between the sensor, integrator, and effector
C)a signal from the outside environment
D)a deviation from the set point
E)a signal that the effector gives to the sensor

D)a deviation from the set point

32

The role of an effector in a feedback loop is to _____.
A)influence the stimulus
B)detect the stimulus
C)allow the integrator to keep working even though conditions have changed
D)act as a sensor
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

A)influence the stimulus

33

When a jogger starts to run, the rate at which his muscles produce CO2 rises sharply. But the CO2 in his blood rises only slightly before he starts to breathe faster and his heart starts beating stronger. Soon his increased rate of CO2 production is balanced by an increased rate of CO2 removal. This would be an example of _____ feedback because the jogger's circulatory and respiratory systems are _____.
A)negative ... acting to oppose the increase of CO2 from the preferred concentration
B)positive ... decreasing the CO2 concentration
C)negative ... acting in opposition to one another
D)positive ... improving the operating conditions in the jogger's body
E)positive ... restoring the CO2 concentration to the set point

A)negative ... acting to oppose the increase of CO2 from the preferred concentration

34

_____ feedback most directly maintains homeostasis because it _____.
A)Positive ... magnifies deviations from the "set point"
B)Positive ... keeps systems constant despite fluctuations in the external environment
C)Negative ... tends to keep a system at a desirable "set point"
D)Negative ... accentuates fluctuations and keeps the system from reaching equilibrium
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

C)Negative ... tends to keep a system at a desirable "set point"

35

By definition, an ectotherm _____.
A)can generate enough metabolic heat to keep its body temperature above that of its surroundings
B)obtains most of its heat from its environment
C)has a body temperature that varies considerably
D)is cold-blooded
E)is warm-blooded

B)obtains most of its heat from its environment

36

The term "endotherm" refers specifically to _____.
A)a cold-blooded animal
B)a warm-blooded animal
C)an animal that temporarily abandons warm-bloodedness
D)an animal that regulates its body temperature by its behavior
E)an animal that gets most of its body heat from its metabolism

E)an animal that gets most of its body heat from its metabolism

37

Which statement is true regarding thermoregulation?
A)In furry animals, raised hairs keep the animal cooler than lowered hairs.
B)Endotherms must always maintain a fairly constant body temperature to survive.
C)Ectotherms generally do not conserve body heat as effectively as do polar bears.
D)A dilated blood vessel conserves more heat than a constricted one.
E)An ectotherm such as a lizard does not maintain a fairly constant body temperature.

C)Ectotherms generally do not conserve body heat as effectively as do polar bears.

38

The wolf, his coat glowing in the early spring sunshine, sat atop a cold boulder after unsuccessfully pursuing a plump jackrabbit. He continued to pant while _____.
A)his body heat evaporated into the rock
B)receiving heat by conduction from the sun
C)heat radiated from his tired body
D)heat escaped his open mouth by conduction
E)heat evaporated away on the gentle breeze

C)heat radiated from his tired body

39

It is a cold day in the lecture hall. When you rest your arm on the cool laminated desktop at your seat, heat is transferred _____.
A)from the desk to your body by radiation
B)from your body to the desk by conduction
C)from your body to the desk by radiation
D)from the desk to your body by conduction
E)from the air to your body by convection

B)from your body to the desk by conduction

40

Humid weather makes you feel warmer because humid air, which is saturated with water molecules, _____.
A)interferes with heat loss by evaporation
B)holds warm water vapor
C)interferes with heat loss by conduction
D)increases metabolic heat production
E)prevents countercurrent heat exchange from occurring

A)interferes with heat loss by evaporation

41

During a fever, the _____ readjusts the set point of the body to a _____ temperature.
A)hypothalamus ... lower
B)adrenal glands ... lower
C)thyroid ... lower
D)hypothalamus ... higher
E)pineal gland ... higher

D)hypothalamus ... higher

42

On a cold day, blood vessels in the skin _____.
A)constrict, forcing blood to flow through vessels in the skin
B)constrict, reducing heat loss from blood at the surface
C)dilate, allowing blood to keep the skin warm
D)dilate, causing blood to pass through the cold skin more quickly
E)dilate, preventing blood flow to the surface

B)constrict, reducing heat loss from blood at the surface

43

When your body temperature is too _____, _____ helps to correct the situation because it _____.
A)high ... peripheral vasodilation ... redirects heat from the body core to the outside
B)low ... shivering ... lowers the metabolic rate and conserves blood sugar
C)low ... peripheral vasodilation ... conserves heat in the body core
D)high ... sweating ... lowers the metabolic rate by dumping toxic ions
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

A)high ... peripheral vasodilation ... redirects heat from the body core to the outside

44

Sweating _____.
A)helps the body thermoregulate
B)happens only on hot days
C)results in irreversible dehydration
D)can be prevented by drinking adequate amounts of water
E)is common in dogs

A)helps the body thermoregulate

45

Which description is a behavior that helps warm the body?
A)A falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter.
B)A woman puts on a wide-brimmed hat while laboring in the sunshine.
C)A man gets "goosebumps" after walking outside in the winter without a jacket.
D)An elephant rolls in the mud and sprays water over its back.
E)Sweat oozes from the hide of a thirsty antelope in the drought-stricken Serengeti plains

A)A falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter.

46

In the late fall, bats hibernate in clusters with many bats pressed together and holding on to one another. Which of the following supposed advantages of huddling behavior is, in reality, not true? A)In this configuration, less heat is needed for each bat and, therefore, each bat requires less food.
B)Huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed.
C)Less surface area is exposed to the environment.
D)Huddling behavior decreases the amount of food needed for bats to stay warm.
E)Any heat generated by any bat is shared by other bats.

B)Huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed.

47

In most animals, food is digested by _____, _____ are absorbed by body cells, and most energy-containing molecules are used to generate _____.
A)mitochondria ... carbon dioxide ... DNA
B)acids ... nutrients ... ATP
C)blood cells ... nutrients ... DNA
D)enzymatic hydrolysis ... DNA and RNA ... more cells
E)enzymatic hydrolysis ... nutrients ... ATP

E)enzymatic hydrolysis ... nutrients ... ATP

48

The amount of energy expended while an endothermic organism is resting, unstressed, and not actively digesting or growing is called its _____.
A)basal metabolic rate
B)standard metabolic rate
C)energy budget
D)bioenergetics
E)metabolic rate

A)basal metabolic rate

49

Which of the following animals would you expect to consume food at the highest rate (kilograms of food per kilogram of body weight per day)?
A)alligators
B)human
C)bullfrog
D)sparrow
E)dog

D)sparrow

50

During the night, the dormouse forages and eats, but during the day its body temperature and heart rate drop significantly. This is an example of what physiological process?
A)torpor
B)acclimatization
C)thermoregulation
D)hibernation
E)thermogenesis

A)torpor