Campbell Biology Ch 41 PT MB

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Chapter 41 Practice Test Mastering Biology
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1

Which food items are typical of an herbivorous diet?

A)eggs, insects, fruit
B)nuts, leaves, berries
C)insects, worms, beetles
D)mice, snakes, birds
E)decomposed dung, rotted vegetation, soil bacteria

B)nuts, leaves, berries

2

Which of the following is acquired outside of an animal's diet?

A)oxygen
B)organic molecules
C)chemical energy
D)essential nutrients
E)All the listed responses are needs that must be supplied through diet.

A)oxygen

3

Animals need two types of organic precursors from their food, _____, to serve as the raw materials for the synthesis of larger organic molecules.

A)organic carbon and organic nitrogen
B)organic hydrogen and organic oxygen
C)organic carbon and organic hydrogen
D)organic carbon and organic oxygen
E)organic nitrogen and organic oxygen

A)organic carbon and organic nitrogen

4

A breakfast cereal advertises that it contains essential vitamins and minerals. In this context, the word "essential" means _____. ( Concept 41.1)

A)that it contains the essence of vegetables used to extract the nutrients
B)that they can be made in the body but it is important to eat food containing these nutrients so that we do not waste essential energy in making them
C)that the nutrients must be supplied in the diet and cannot be made in the body
D)that they are necessary for life
E)nothing: this is just a gimmick

C)that the nutrients must be supplied in the diet and cannot be made in the body

5

Which of the following are considered essential nutrients: (1) certain carbohydrates, (2) certain fatty acids, (3) certain amino acids, (4) cholesterol?

A)1, 2, 3, and 4
B)1, 2, and 3
C)2, 3, and 4
D)2 and 3
E)3

D)2 and 3

6

In general, B vitamins function in your body as _____.

A)a source of energy
B)structural components of cell membranes
C)a source of minerals
D)coenzymes
E)antioxidants

D)coenzymes

7

Why is it important to consume B vitamins every day, but not A vitamins?

A)B vitamins are an essential nutrient, and vitamin A is not.
B)Vitamin A can be stored in the body fat, but B vitamins are not stored by the body

C)The body needs much larger amounts of B vitamins than vitamin A.
D)The body requires B vitamins, but vitamin A is just an "extra."
E)Vitamin A is water-soluble, and B vitamins are fat-soluble.

B)Vitamin A can be stored in the body fat, but B vitamins are not stored by the body.

8

The fat-soluble vitamins include _____.

A)vitamins A, D, E, and K
B)vitamin A and the B group
C)the B vitamins and vitamin
D)vitamins C, D, E, and K
E)riboflavin and niacin

A)vitamins A, D, E, and K

9

_____ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, as parts of certain enzymes, for normal muscle and nerve function, and for water balance.

A)Starches
B)Fats
C)Minerals
D)Nucleic acids
E)Vitamins

C)Minerals

10

An insufficient supply of chemical energy in the diet or a shortage of one or more essential nutrients results in _____.
A)undernutrition
B)malnutrition
C)protein deficiency
D)hypernutrition
E)All of the listed responses are correct

B)malnutrition

11

Despite long days grazing on tall grasses, several of the cattle released into a new pasture have oddly shaped or broken legs and often lay down. These cattle might be suffering from _____.

A)carbohydrate deficiency
B)undernutrition
C)fat deficiency
D)calcium deficiency
E)vitamin A deficience

D)calcium deficiency

12

Which of the following statements about nutrition and digestion is true?

A)"Feeding" and "digestion" are synonyms.
B)Chemical digestion typically precedes mechanical digestion in wolves.
C)During absorption, small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars are absorbed.
D)Elimination rids the body of excessive nutrients.
E)Small sugars are joined by enzymatic hydrolysis to form large carbohydrates.

C)During absorption, small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars are absorbed.

13

Which of the following statements is true?

A)The last stage of food processing is absorption.
B)Ingestion breaks down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
C)Absorption breaks bonds using enzymatic hydrolysis.
D)Ingestion is the act of eating.
E)Undigested materials pass out of the alimentary canal by absorption.

D)Ingestion is the act of eating.

14

Which of the following animals has a one-way digestive tract?

A)earthworm
B)sponge
C)jellyfish
D)sea anemone
E)flatworm

A)earthworm

15

Which of the following animals uses only intracellular digestion?

A)earthworm
B)sponge
C)jellyfish
D)sea anemone
E)flatworm

B)sponge

16

In vertebrates, food is moved along the length of the digestive system by _____.

A)active transport across cell membranes
B)peristalsis
C)diffusion and osmosis
D)sequential contraction of bands of skeletal muscles
E)sphincter contraction

B)peristalsis

17

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the _____ with the action of _____.

A)mouth ... salivary amylase
B)stomach ... hydrochloric acid
C)small intestine ... lipase
D)small intestine ... pancreatic amylase
E)stomach ... salivary amylase

A)mouth ... salivary amylase

18

The tongue does all of the following EXCEPT _____.

A)taste food
S)manipulate food within the mouth
C)shape food into a bolus
D)secrete saliva
E)push food into the pharynx to begin swallowing

D)secrete saliva

19

How is the stomach lining protected from the strongly acidic pH of its contents?

A)It releases a hormone called gastrin, which stops gastric juice secretion.
B)Mucous cells secrete a protective lubricant into the stomach.
C)Bile neutralizes the acid soon after it enters the stomach.
D)Parietal cells secrete a protective buffer to neutralize hydrochloric acid.
E)The acid is neutralized quickly when it combines with pepsinogen to make pepsin.

B)Mucous cells secrete a protective lubricant into the stomach.

20

Which of the following statements regarding protein digestion is true?

A)Protein digestion begins in the small intestine.
B)Active pepsin is formed in the lumen of the stomach, where it helps to break down proteins.
C)Protein digestion is dependent on amylase from parietal cells of the stomach.
D)Protein digestion occurs at a pH of about 7.0.
E)Protein digestion begins in the mouth through the action of salivary amylase.

B)Active pepsin is formed in the lumen of the stomach, where it helps to break down proteins.

21

Which of the following might make the most effective anti-ulcer medication?

A) a chemical that stimulates the parietal cells of the gastric pits
B) a chemical that kills bacteria in the stomach
C) a chemical that inhibits epithelial cells in the stomach that produce mucus
D) a chemical that stimulates the secretion of bile
E) a chemical that stimulates the chief cells of the gastric pits

B)a chemical that kills bacteria in the stomach

22

Acid chyme _____.

A)contains digested fat
B)is a mush made from boluses and hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the pancreas and duodenum
C)contains food and gastric juice and moves through the pyloric sphincter
D)causes gastric ulcers
E)passes into the large intestine, where water is removed

C)contains food and gastric juice and moves through the pyloric sphincter

23

Which of the following processes, structures, or conditions are properly matched?

A)peristalsis ... heartburn
B)mucous cells ... ulcers
C)parietal cells ... diarrhea
D)chief cells ... diarrhea
E)acid chyme backflow ... heartburn

E)acid chyme backflow ... heartburn

24

In humans, most nutrient molecules are absorbed by the _____.

A)stomach
B)liver
C)small intestine
D)large intestine
E)pancreas

C)small intestine

25

The liver and pancreas add their secretions to the partially digested food produced in the stomach, in the _____ of the small intestine.

A)sphincter
B)duodenum
C)jejunum
D)ileum
E)colon

B)duodenum

26

Most digestive enzymes function in the _____.

A)large intestine
B)oral cavity
C)stomach
D)liver
E)small intestine

E)small intestine

27

The natural antacid that protects the intestines against stomach acid is produced by the _____.

A)stomach
B)liver
C)esophagus
D)pancreas
E)small intestine

D)pancreas

28

Pepsin is an enzyme produced in the stomach that attacks proteins to break them down into smaller peptide molecules. Which of the following statements about this enzyme is true?

A)The activity of pepsin will speed up in the small intestine because the pH becomes less acidic.
B)Pepsin will continue to work at the same rate as it moves through the intestines until all the protein is broken down.
C)Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as basic secretions from the pancreas neutralize the pH.
D)Salivary amylase activates pepsin, converting it to a functioning form in the stomach.
E)The activity of pepsin will speed up in the small intestine because the pH becomes less acidic.

C)Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as basic secretions from the pancreas neutralize the pH.

29

Gallstone surgery sometimes requires that the gallbladder be removed. Patients are then advised to avoid ingesting large amounts of fat because _____.

A)the gallbladder makes bile, which is necessary for fat emulsification
B)without the bile produced by the gallbladder, fats cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed
C)the gallbladder stores the hormone enterogastrone, necessary to digest fats
D)the gallbladder stores large quantities of bile, which is used to emulsify fats
E)chylomicrons first enter the gallbladder before moving to the liver

D)the gallbladder stores large quantities of bile, which is used to emulsify fats

30

The lungs consist of many small air sacs and blood vessels, which greatly increase surface area and improve the transfer of substances through their walls. The structures in the digestive system most similar in function to these air sacs and capillaries are the _____.
A)villi and microvilli
B)esophagus
C)gastric glands
D)gastric pits
E)sphincters

A)villi and microvilli

31

Which of the following is the actual absorptive surface within the lumen of the small intestine?

A)circular folds
B)blood capillaries
C)lacteals
D)villi
E)microvilli

E)microvilli

32

Researchers provided radioactively labeled food to a dog and traced the movement of absorbed molecules. Which type of molecule moved along a path different from all the others?

A)carbohydrates
B)proteins
C)nucleic acids
D)fats
E)All followed the same pathway.

D)fats

33

The lymphatic vessels in the villi absorb and transport _____.

A)chylomicrons
B)fats
C)monosaccharides
D)amino acids
E)peptides

A)chylomicrons

34

During some types of antibiotic treatments, patients often experience diarrhea because _____.
A)antibiotics are toxic to the colon's epithelium and to bacteria
B)the bacterial flora of the large intestine that normally break down undigested organic material are killed by the antibiotics
C)antibiotics interfere with the vitamin absorption normally occurring within the large intestine
D)after intestinal bacteria have been killed, an unusually large amount of water is reabsorbed
E)antibiotics affect the hormones that control intestinal peristalsis

A)the bacterial flora of the large intestine that normally break down undigested organic material are killed by the antibiotics

35

Symbiotic bacteria living in our large intestines provide us with _____.
A)carbohydrates
B)vitamins
C)minerals
D)calories
E)disease resistance

B)vitamins

36

What relation do indigestible plant fibers, prokaryotes, and vitamins have with the digestive system?
A)They are washed out of the body in the 7 liters of water that daily pass into the digestive system.
B)In the presence of certain vitamins, prokaryotes are able to digest plant fibers.
C)The bacteria cause rapid peristalsis, resulting in constipation, which retains plant fibers and vitamins in the lower intestine.
D)They are the contents of the large intestine.
E)They move through the terminal portion of the colon together and are voided as feces.

D)They are the contents of the large intestine.

37

Which of the following is an adaptation to a carnivorous diet?

A)sharp, pointed teeth
B)reingestion of feces
C)longer intestines
D)enlarged cecum
E)large populations of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in the alimentary canal

A)sharp, pointed teeth

38

How would you expect the digestive system of a hawk to compare with that of a seed-eating sparrow?

A)The hawk would have a larger gastrovascular cavity.
B)The sparrow's digestive system would be longer.
C)The hawk would have a gizzard, but the sparrow would not.
D)The hawk's digestive system would be longer.
E)The sparrow would have a gizzard but the hawk would not.

B)The sparrow's digestive system would be longer.

39

Which of the following animals rely on symbiotic relationships with bacteria to obtain nutrients?

A)termites
B)giant tubeworms
C)rabbits
D)sheep
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

D)All of the listed responses are correct.

40

Leptin, an appetite regulator, is produced in _____ and at high levels can lead to _____.

A)adipose tissue ... suppressed appetite
B)the brain ... periods of undernourishment
C)the stomach ... the churning motion you feel when you are hungry
D)the stomach ... the breakdown of glycogen stores
E)adipose tissue ... the breakdown of adipose tissue

A)adipose tissue ... suppressed appetite

41

Overnourishment is a direct cause of _____.

A)diabetes
B)cardiovascular disease
C)breast cancer
D)colon cancer
E)obesity

E)obesity

42

Several days after a long holiday weekend including much overeating, you try to cut back on your calories. The first day that you reduce your calorie intake to below the levels that you need, your body will respond by using _____.

A)glycogen from the liver
B)fat from all over the body
C)fat from around skeletal muscles
D)protein from muscles
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

A)glycogen from the liver