PSYC 350 - Quizzes for Test #2 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is a key element of a cross-cultural study?

It uses standard forms of measurement, like Likert scales, to compare people across cultures and identify differences.

2

Professor Rosenthal is studying the ways that people from different cultures regard violent behaviors. He is looking specifically at the amount of agreement from one group to another. Professor Rosenthal is emphasizing the topic of cultural ________ in his study.

similarities

3

The ability to understand why members of other cultures act in the way that they do is known as cultural ______.

intelligence

4

Bella acts differently when she is at work versus with her friends. This difference is an example of what?

situational identity

5

Social psychologists try to conduct ______ research, meaning that they attempt to avoid making judgments about other cultures.

values-free

6

In what type of culture is the person more important than the group?

individualistic

7

When you judge people from other cultures using your own cultural backdrop as the standard of what is "right" or "good," you are employing ________ bias in your judgment.

ethnocentric

8

Alison thinks of herself as a good friend, a big sister, and a loving wife. Which self-construal is she an example of?

the interdependent self

9

Marco and Kenny are welcoming an exchange student into their home. They live in the United States and she is from Spain. They notice that she does not do laundry very often and wears the same clothes two or three times before she washes them. They try to understand these actions from her cultural background. These men are displaying a high level of cultural ________.

intelligence

10

When a younger generation adds new things to the culture it has inherited from past generations this is known as:

accumulated knowledge

11

There are many facets of culture. They include all except which of the following?

universality

12

LaTonya has been given an award by her company and makes a speech at an awards banquet. Her entire speech focuses on the contributions of her work group, her family, and her friends. At no time does she note her own work or her personal achievements. LaTonya seems to emphasize the cultural value of ________

collectivism

13

When Devon thinks about himself as part of the band in which he plays, he feels that he is one part of the larger whole. "The band needs me to have a good bass line, but without the rest of them I am just one instrument." This thought addresses Devon's self-________.

construal

14

A cultural ______ is a learned guide for how to behave appropriately in a given society.

script

15

The tendency to define one's self in terms of stable traits that guide behavior is one's ________ self.

independent

16

Culture is learned through direct teaching as well as ______.

observational learning

17

"On a scale of one to ten, where one means "Disagree strongly" and ten means "agree strongly," please give a rating of the idea that there is a problem with police violence in the United States." This question, if used in a research study, is an example of a(n) ________ scale.

standard

18

Smiling is an example of a(n) ______; people in all cultures naturally do it.

universal behavior

19

Which of the following refers to a uniquely human form of learning that is taught by one generation to another?

enculturation

20

Which of the following is defined as engaging acts that typically involve situations in which one person is in need and another provides the necessary assistance to eliminate the other’s need?

helping

21

The prosocial personality orientation includes ______ and helpfulness.

other-oriented empathy

22

Engaging in actions that benefit another person is called ________behavior.

prosocial

23

According to the diffusion of responsibility phenomenon why would someone be less likely to offer help when in a crowd than if they were alone with a person in need?

they feel less personal responsibility in a crowd

24

______ refers to helping others who have helped us in the past.

Reciprocal altruism

25

Who helps more men or women?

they help about the same but in different ways

26

In a situation where a thief needs to be confronted by a bystander, why might a man be more likely to intervene than a woman?

men tend to have more upper body strength than women and thus may be less likely to be injured when confronting the thief

27

Is there a difference between the likelihood that men or women will provide help when it is needed?

no, the general levels of helpfulness are pretty much equivalent between the sexes.

28

Showing favoritism for helping one's own blood relatives is called ________.

kin selection

29

Who is more likely to help a friend with personal problems?

Women

30

What was the motivation behind Stanley Milgram’s famous obedience experiment?

He wanted to know why German citizens went along with the brutality of Nazi leaders during the Holocaust.

31

In Stanley Milgram’s research examining obedience the participant was able to discontinue the experiment only after what took place.

The participant stated that he/she did not want to continue participating 4 consecutive times.

32

In his classic research study examining normative influence and conformity what did Solomon Asch ask his participants to do?

judge the length of lines

33

______refers to conformity that results from a concern for what other people think of us.

Normative influence

34

Which researcher is well-known for having conducted a study of conformity that involved having participants express a judgment of the sizes of lines?

Solomon Asch

35

Which of the following statements is true of Asch’s research on conformity in groups

Participants conformed with the group norm on about one-third of the total trials.

36

In the basic version of Stanley Milgram’s research examining obedience what percentage of participants administered the maximum voltage of shock going right to the very end of the session?

65

37

In Asch’s classic study of conformity what were research participants asked to do?

Judge the sizes of lines that were on a card held a few feet away from them.

38

Based on your understanding of the research of Solomon Asch you know that of all of the following choices the person most likely to demonstrate conformity would be:

Mika a 23-year old Japanese woman

39

What was one correct outcome of Asch’s classic research on conformity in groups?

Three-quarters of the participants conformed to the incorrect group norm at least one time.

40

In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity the confederates in the room gave the wrong answer to the task on 12 of 16 trials (or 75%). This resulted in the participants going along with the wrong answer on at least one trial ______percent of the time.

76

41

When the participants who took part in Stanley Milgram’s “shock box” obedience study were surveyed after the study was completed what was discovered?

The vast majority of them were pleased that they had been part of the experiment.

42

On her first day of college Mikela doesn’t know where to go. She sees a group of students walk down the hall and she follows them. In fact they are just walking to the closest bathroom. Mikela has been impacted by ______ influence.

informational

43

Ethical concerns have been raised about Stanley Milgram’s obedience research. Specifically some have suggested that the project caused too much distress in the participants distress that could not be justified. If you were asked your opinion of this issue which of the following would be a legitimate response?

The majority of participants reported that they were pleased to have participated in the research, so it does not seem to have been damaging to most of those who were involved.

44

Which of the following factors does NOT influence conformity?

the age of the group

45

“I do what other kids in my class do even when I don’t want to do it because I want other people to like me!” This statement summarizes the concept of ______ influence.

normative

46

Which of the following statements is true of Asch’s research on conformity in groups?

Participants conformed with the group norm on about one-third of the total trials.

47

Research on social pressure and conformity suggests which of the following factors can help individuals resist conformity in a group.

observing just one person disagreeing with the majority

48

Kelly is at a college party and notices everyone is drinking. She concludes that the majority of students on campus must also drink alcohol frequently. What would we call Kelly’s perception of what most people are doing?

A descriptive norm

49

When Kevin had to change middle schools none of the students at his new school accepted him into their groups a concept known as ______.

ostracism

50

This stage of Tuckman’s theory of group development generally has the most disagreement and conflict.

Storming

51

According to social psychologists Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary human beings have a fundamental psychological need to ________.

belong

52

Ingrid goes to a community building of a new playground where dozens of people have shown up to lend a hand. Ingrid doesn't want to help so she makes sure to take the easiest tasks possible and puts very little effort into them. She does not think her lack of effort will matter or will be noticed. Ingrid is demonstrating ________.

social loafing

53

Charlotte is forming a new medieval singing group on her college campus. There are 12 singers involved and they are trying to determine how the group will exist. Right now there is a lot of disagreement and conflict among the singers and they are trying to determine a solution that will make everyone happy. According to Tuckman's model the group is in the ________ stage.

storming

54

The manager at the movie theater notices that a crew of 4 cleans a theater as quickly as a crew of 6. This is due to ______.

social loafing

55

The Baltimore Bashers a semi-professional football team has been very successful this season. When interviewed the head coach says that their success comes from having a tight-knit team of players who like and support each other and who believe that they can only be successful together. The coach is referring to group ________.

cohesion

56

After William went to college he decided to join the Young Republicans Club. He went to make sure that his political beliefs were shared and supported by others and that he could feel confident that his positions were legitimate. According to Leon Festinger William's decision to join this group was driven by the process of social ________.

comparison

57

The idea that self-esteem functions to mentally monitor one's degree of inclusion or exclusion in social groups is called the ________ model.

sociometer

58

Anushka is generally in favor of a new candidate for Prime Minister of England but knows that the candidate is controversial and extreme. She discusses her concerns with other people who support the candidate and at the end of the talk they are all much more in favor of their candidate. This demonstrates the process of ________.

group polarization

59

Collectivism

The cultural trend in which the primary unit of measurement is the group. Collectivists are likely to emphasize duty and obligation over personal aspirations.

60

Cross-cultural psychology (or cross-cultural studies)

An approach to researching culture that emphasizes the use of standard scales as a means of making meaningful comparisons across groups.

61

Cross-cultural studies (or cross-cultural psychology)

An approach to researching culture that emphasizes the use of standard scales as a means of making meaningful comparisons across groups.

62

Cultural differences

An approach to understanding culture primarily by paying attention to unique and distinctive features that set them apart from other cultures.

63

Cultural intelligence

The ability and willingness to apply cultural awareness to practical uses.

64

Cultural psychology​

An approach to researching culture that emphasizes the use of interviews and observation as a means of understanding culture from its own point of view.

65

Cultural relativism

The principled objection to passing overly culture-bound (i.e., “ethnocentric”) judgements on aspects of other cultures.

66

Cultural script

Learned guides for how to behave appropriately in a given social situation. These reflect cultural norms and widely accepted values.

67

Cultural similarities

An approach to understanding culture primarily by paying attention to common features that are the same as or similar to those of other cultures

68

Culture

A pattern of shared meaning and behavior among a group of people that is passed from one generation to the next.

69

Enculturation

The uniquely human form of learning that is taught by one generation to another.

70

Ethnocentric bias (or ethnocentrism)

Being unduly guided by the beliefs of the culture you’ve grown up in, especially when this results in a misunderstanding or disparagement of unfamiliar cultures.

71

Ethnographic studies

Research that emphasizes field data collection and that examines questions that attempt to understand culture from it's own context and point of view.

72

Independent self

The tendency to define the self in terms of stable traits that guide behavior.

73

Individualism

The cultural trend in which the primary unit of measurement is the individual. Individualists are likely to emphasize uniqueness and personal aspirations over social duty.

74

Interdependent self

The tendency to define the self in terms of social contexts that guide behavior.

75

Observational learning

Learning by observing the behavior of others.

76

Open ended questions

Research questions that ask participants to answer in their own words.

77

Ritual

Rites or actions performed in a systematic or prescribed way often for an intended purpose. Example: The exchange of wedding rings during a marriage ceremony in many cultures.

78

Self-construal

The extent to which the self is defined as independent or as relating to others.

79

Situational identity

Being guided by different cultural influences in different situations, such as home versus workplace, or formal versus informal roles.

80

Standard scale

Research method in which all participants use a common scale—typically a Likert scale—to respond to questions.

81

Value judgment

An assessment—based on one’s own preferences and priorities—about the basic “goodness” or “badness” of a concept or practice.

82

Value-free research

Research that is not influenced by the researchers’ own values, morality, or opinions.

83

Agreeableness

A core personality trait that includes such dispositional characteristics as being sympathetic, generous, forgiving, and helpful, and behavioral tendencies toward harmonious social relations and likeability.

84

Altruism

A motivation for helping that has the improvement of another’s welfare as its ultimate goal, with no expectation of any benefits for the helper.

85

Arousal

cost–reward model: An egoistic theory proposed by Piliavin et al. (1981) that claims that seeing a person in need leads to the arousal of unpleasant feelings, and observers are motivated to eliminate that aversive state, often by helping the victim. A cost–reward analysis may lead observers to react in ways other than offering direct assistance, including indirect help, reinterpretation of the situation, or fleeing the scene.

86

Bystander intervention

The phenomenon whereby people intervene to help others in need even if the other is a complete stranger and the intervention puts the helper at risk.

87

Cost–benefit analysis

A decision-making process that compares the cost of an action or thing against the expected benefit to help determine the best course of action.

88

Diffusion of responsibility

When deciding whether to help a person in need, knowing that there are others who could also provide assistance relieves bystanders of some measure of personal responsibility, reducing the likelihood that bystanders will intervene.

89

Egoism

A motivation for helping that has the improvement of the helper’s own circumstances as its primary goal.

90

Empathic concern

According to Batson’s empathy–altruism hypothesis, observers who empathize with a person in need (that is, put themselves in the shoes of the victim and imagine how that person feels) will experience empathic concern and have an altruistic motivation for helping.

91

Empathy–altruism model

An altruistic theory proposed by Batson (2011) that claims that people who put themselves in the shoes of a victim and imagining how the victim feel will experience empathic concern that evokes an altruistic motivation for helping.

92

Helpfulness

A component of the prosocial personality orientation; describes individuals who have been helpful in the past and, because they believe they can be effective with the help they give, are more likely to be helpful in the future.

93

Helping

Prosocial acts that typically involve situations in which one person is in need and another provides the necessary assistance to eliminate the other’s need.

94

Kin selection

According to evolutionary psychology, the favoritism shown for helping our blood relatives, with the goals of increasing the likelihood that some portion of our DNA will be passed on to future generations.

95

Negative state relief model

An egoistic theory proposed by Cialdini et al. (1982) that claims that people have learned through socialization that helping can serve as a secondary reinforcement that will relieve negative moods such as sadness.

96

Other-oriented empathy

A component of the prosocial personality orientation; describes individuals who have a strong sense of social responsibility, empathize with and feel emotionally tied to those in need, understand the problems the victim is experiencing, and have a heightened sense of moral obligations to be helpful.

97

Personal distress

According to Batson’s empathy–altruism hypothesis, observers who take a detached view of a person in need will experience feelings of being “worried” and “upset” and will have an egoistic motivation for helping to relieve that distress.

98

Pluralistic ignorance

Relying on the actions of others to define an ambiguous need situation and to then erroneously conclude that no help or intervention is necessary.

99

Prosocial behavior

Social behavior that benefits another person.

100

Prosocial personality orientation

A measure of individual differences that identifies two sets of personality characteristics (other-oriented empathy, helpfulness) that are highly correlated with prosocial behavior.

101

Reciprocal altruism

According to evolutionary psychology, a genetic predisposition for people to help those who have previously helped them.

102

Conformity

Changing one’s attitude or behavior to match a perceived social norm.

103

Descriptive norm

The perception of what most people do in a given situation.

104

Informational influence

Conformity that results from a concern to act in a socially approved manner as determined by how others act.

105

Normative influence

Conformity that results from a concern for what other people think of us.

106

Obedience

Responding to an order or command from a person in a position of authority.

107

Collective self-esteem

Feelings of self-worth that are based on evaluation of relationships with others and membership in social groups.

108

Common knowledge effect

The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing information that all members know (shared information) and less time examining information that only a few members know (unshared).

109

Group cohesion

The solidarity or unity of a group resulting from the development of strong and mutual interpersonal bonds among members and group-level forces that unify the group, such as shared commitment to group goals.

110

Group polarization

The tendency for members of a deliberating group to move to a more extreme position, with the direction of the shift determined by the majority or average of the members’ predeliberation preferences.

111

Groupthink

A set of negative group-level processes, including illusions of invulnerability, self-censorship, and pressures to conform, that occur when highly cohesive groups seek concurrence when making a decision.

112

Ostracism

Excluding one or more individuals from a group by reducing or eliminating contact with the person, usually by ignoring, shunning, or explicitly banishing them.

113

Shared mental model

Knowledge, expectations, conceptualizations, and other cognitive representations that members of a group have in common pertaining to the group and its members, tasks, procedures, and resources.

114

Social comparison

The process of contrasting one’s personal qualities and outcomes, including beliefs, attitudes, values, abilities, accomplishments, and experiences, to those of other people.

115

Social facilitation

Improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people.

116

Social identity theory

A theoretical analysis of group processes and intergroup relations that assumes groups influence their members’ self-concepts and self-esteem, particularly when individuals categorize themselves as group members and identify with the group.

117

Social loafing

The reduction of individual effort exerted when people work in groups compared with when they work alone.

118

Sociometer model

A conceptual analysis of self-evaluation processes that theorizes self-esteem functions to psychologically monitor of one’s degree of inclusion and exclusion in social groups.

119

Teamwork

The process by which members of the team combine their knowledge, skills, abilities, and other resources through a coordinated series of actions to produce an outcome.

120

A collective understanding of the way the world works, shared by a group and passed down from one generation to the next

Culture

121

College education, advanced technology, ballet

Progressive cultivation

122

Traditions, religion, organizational culture

Way of life

123

Parenting, apprenticeship, teaching

Shared learning and enculturation

124

Who studied conformity under the normative influence?

Solomon Asch

125

The stereotype content model includes

warmth and competence dimensions

126

When the victim is close.

Obedience goes down

127

A tendency to believe in and act to maintain hierarchies.

social dominance orientation

128

Diffusion Of Responsibility is represented by…

You are less likely to take action while others are around.

129

In the prisoner's dilemma situation, the most favorable outcome for both prisoners is for

Both to remain silent

130

Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among

audience members asked to clap for a speaker.

131

If you're worried that your team decisions might be influenced by groupthink, you could

Assign someone to play devil's advocate

132

What is the definition of cultural relativism?

The practice of judging a culture by its standards

133

What is ethnographic research?

The study of people in their environment

134

Which is LEAST consistent with the empathy-altruism model of helping?

empathetic concern leads to personal distress

135

Which stage of group development is second?

Storming

136

Which stage of group development is important for group stability and cohesiveness?

Norming