Anatomy and Physiology: Exam 1 of Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards


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Anatomy and Physiology
Chapters 1, 4, 5
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1

Anatomy

Study of internal and external structures

ex: bones-femur

Protein fiber-collagen

2

Physiology

Study of function of cells, tissues organs. Example in a stressful situation cortisol is released.

3

Gross anatomy

Large structures, example femur

4

Histology

Study of tissues, example, adipose

5

Describe the levels of complexity, involved in living organisms, starting with atoms and ending with organisms.

Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organ, organ systems, organism

6

Intracellular

The fluid interior of the cell

7

Extracellular

The fluid environment outside the enclosure of the cell membrane

8

Two parts of extracellular

Plasma, interstitial

9

Plasma

Extracellular matrix

10

interstitial

Term given to extracellular fluid, not contained within blood vessels

11

Tissue

A group of many similar cells that work together to perform a specific function

12

Organ

Anatomically, distinct structure of the body, composed of two or more tissue types

13

Organ system

A group of organs that work together to perform major functions

14

Cardiovascular

Delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues
Equalizes temp body

15

Respiratory

Removes carbon dioxide from the body
Delivers oxygen to blood

16

Digestive

Processes food for use by body
Removes waste from digested food

17

Endocrine

Secrete hormones
Regulates bodily processes

18

urinary

Controls water balance
Removes waste from body and excrete them

19

Immune/lymphatic

Return fluid to blood
Defense against pathogens

20

Integumentary

Encloses internal structures
Site of many sensory receptors

21

Muscular

Enables movement
Helps maintain body temp

22

Skeletal

Support body

Enables movement

23

Nervous

Detect and process of sensory info
Activates bodily responses

24

Homeostasis

State of steady internal conditions maintained by living things

25

Define negative feedback loop

A mechanism that reverses, a deviation from a setpoint, maintains body parameters within normal range

26

Describe an example of a negative feedback in the body, using terms sensor, control center, effector, and response

Setpoint is glucose too high

Sensor: pancreas cells, measure blood glucose

Control center: pancreas cells, release, insulin to bloodstream

Effector: liver cells, respond to insulin by taking in glucose

Blood glucose is reduced

27

Define positive feedback loop and give specific examples

Intensifies a change in the bodies physiological condition, rather than reversing it

Childbirth: as fetus increases pressure it leads to increased uterus contractions

28

Explain how gradient and resistance influence the flow of substances

Resistance: membrane prevents salutes from crossing
Gradient: high to low, that determines direction of flow

29

Gap junction

Intercellular channels that permit, direct cell transfer of ions and small molecules

30

Tight junctions

Closely associated areas of Z cells whose membranes joined together to form a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid

31

Anchoring junction

Mechanically attaches a cell to neighboring cells or to the extracellular matrix

32

Name the four basic tissue types in the human body

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

33

Describe the general features of epithelial tissues, and give the criteria by which they are classified

Squamous: flattened and thin

Cuboidal: boxy, wide, as it is tall

Columnar: rectangular

34

Describe the location and structure of the basement membrane.

Deep to the epithelial cells, layer between epithelial and deeper tissue, which is often connective tissue

35

Simple, squamous, epithelium
Location and function

Location: air sacks of lungs, lining of heart

Function: allows materials to pass through by diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances

36

Simple, cuboidal, epithelium
Location and function

Location: Kidneys

Function: secrete and absorbs

37

Simple, columnar, epithelium

Location and function

Location: Digestive tract, Bladder, Uterine tubes

Function: absorbs

38

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Location and function

Location :Trachea

Function: Moves mucus

39

Stratified squamous epithelium
Location and function

Location: Esophagus, mouth

Function: protects against abrasion

40

Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Location and function

Location: memory glands, sweat glands

Function: protective tissue

41

Stratified columnar epithelium
Location and function

Location: male and female urethra

Function: secrets and protects

42

Transitional epithelium
Location and function

Location: bladder

Function: Allows expansion and stretching

43

Compare the structure and function of microvilli and cilia

cilia are longer and thicker than microvilli, Cilia can move while microvilli cannot. Cilia our hair like. Microvilli folded membranes.

44

Describe the general features of connective tissue

Connect tissues and organs, protection, transport fluid, nutrients, waste, chemical messengers

45

What types of extra cellular material are found in the connective tissue

Matrix and connective tissue

46

What cells, fiber, and ground substance are in loose, areola, connective tissue?

Cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells

Fiber: collagen and elastic

Ground substance: gel like

47

What cells, fibers, ground substance are in adipose connective tissue?

Cells: adipocytes, fat

fiber: none

ground substance: solid

48

What cells, fibers, ground substance is in reticular connective tissue?

Cells: White blood cells, mast, cells, and macrophages

Fiber: reticular

Ground substance: Typically a loose substance

49

Cells and fibers, are in dense, irregular connective tissue?

Cells: fibroblasts

Fiber: collagen and a few elastic

50

What cells and fibers are dense regular connective tissue?

Cells: fibroblasts

fibers: collagen and elastic

51

What produces the matrix in Hyline cartilage?

Chondroblast

52

What lies in the lacunae of Hyline cartilage?

chondrocytes

53

Osteo

Relating to bone

54

Erythro

Red or reddish

55

Leuko-

White

56

Chondro

Cartilage

57

-blast

Building cell

58

-cyte

Mature cell

59

-clast

Break or destructive cell

60

Why do damage tensions or cartilage heal mite then damage skin, or bone?

Lack of active blood flow

61

Where are fiber example collagen in connective tissue synthesized?

Through whatever cell type is near the fibroblast

62

How do fibers get into the extracellular matrix?

Through the ribosomes, modified and packaged in the Golgi apparatus then into transport vesicles into the cell membrane

63

Describe skeletal muscle tissue

striations, Long, wide, multinucleated

64

Describe cardiac muscle?

striated, has intercalated discs, different directions

65

Describe smooth muscle

no striations, long, smooth, spindle shaped

66

Define intercalated

Lines responsible for connecting the cardiac muscles

67

What are the three muscle tissues?

Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

68

Describe the components of nervous tissue?

Cell body of neuron, axons, dendrites,glial cells

69

Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

70

Atrophy

Decrease in size

71

Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

72

Explain why the integumentary system can be classified as a system?

Made of tissues that work together as a single structure to preform functions

73

What are the functions of the Integumentary system?

Protection, insulation and cushions, prevents water loss, vitamin D synthesis, sensory, excretion and absorption

74

Identify 5 strata in the epidermis?

Stratum:

corneum

granulosum

spinosum

basale

75

What type of tissue is the epidermis composed of?

Stratified squamous epithelium

76

What layer of strata contains melanocytes?

Basale

77

What layer of strata contains epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans)?

Spinosum

78

Function of melanocytes?

A cell that produces melanin

79

Function of Langerhans cell?

Engulfs bacteria, foreign bacteria and damaged cells

80

Difference between thin and thick skin?

Thick skin has thinner dermis and doesn’t contain hairs. Thin skin is most the body and thick covers fingertips, palms, soles of feet

81

What cell junction is found in the epidermis? Their function.

Anchoring- hemidesmosomes, they connect the basale to the basement membrane

Gap- diffusion

82

Describe the dermis

It is the core of the integumentary system, 2 layers of connective tissues composed of interconnected mesh like elastin and collagen fibers.

83

What tissues make up papillary of the dermis?

Loose areolar connective tissues

84

What tissues make up reticular layer of the dermis?

Irregular connective tissues

85

Describe papillary dermis?

Most superficial dermal region, very uneven, fingerlike projections from its superior surface. Pain and touch receptors are found here.

86

Describe Reticular dermis ?

Deepest skin layer. Contains many arteries and veins, sweat and sebaceous glands, pressure receptors are found here.

87

Function of eccrine sweat glands

Maintain homeostasis, stabilized temperature, cool body down

88

Function of Apocrine sweat glands

Scent glands

89

Function of Sebaceous gland

Produce an oily matter, called sebum, found in hair follicles

90

Function of Collagen and elastic fibers

Strength and elasticity

91

Function of lamellar corpuscles

Sensory receptors for vibration and deep pressure

92

Function of Tactile corpuscles

Sensitive to fine or light touch

93

Function of Free nerve endings

Detect, mechanical, stimuli, like touch, pressure, stretch, or danger

94

Identify the hypodermis and name the tissues that make it up

Layer directly below dermis and serves to connect the skin to fibrous tissue of bone and muscle
Loose areolar connective, tissue and adipose

95

Describe how temperature melanin, oxygen saturation and diet contribute to the color of the skin

They cause melanin to be manufactured and built up in keratinocytes, where they secrete chemicals that stimulate melanocytes. Accumulation causes skin to darken.

96

Identify the location, type of tissue and function of the arrector pili muscles?

Location: dermis

Tissue type: smooth muscle

Function: raise the hair

97

Explain how the epidermis protects deeper tissues from invading microorganisms

Keratinocytes are first line of innate immune defense

98

Explain how the epidermis protects deeper tissue from ultraviolet radiation

Melanin

99

Explain how the epidermis protects deeper tissue from abrasion

corneocytes, strong dead keratinocytes

100

Explain how epidermis protects deeper tissue from water loss

Keratin synthesizes releases glycolipid

101

What is about the tissue of the dermis that allows it to resist hearing from pokes and stretches?

Mechanical properties, collagen, and elastin in the thick layer of fibrous and elastic tissue

102

Describe the response of the integumentary system to an increase in body temperature above normal

Eccrine sweat glands, allow temp control by secretion sweat evaporating thus cooling down the body

103

Explain how Sweat gland responses help return the body to normal

Thermal regulation is regulated by dilation or construction of heat, carrying blood vessels

104

Explain the response to decreased body temperatures

Inhibition to excessive sweating, decreases blood flow to the papillary layers

105

Explain the role of ultraviolet, radiation, and vitamin D production

Energy that stimulates vitamin D production

106

What organs, modify vitamin D, to make Calcitrol?

Kidneys and liver

107

Give the function of vitamin D

Increases calcium, absorption, immune boosting effects

108

Differentiate between first-degree secondary, and third-degree burns by indicating which layers of the skin are involved with each burn type

First-degree, epidermis only, degree, epidermidis and dermis layers, third-degree reaches into all three layers.

109

As the epidermis heals from an injury, what specific layer of cells replaced damage cells?

stratum basale- keratinocytes mobilize and divide rapidly to repair by collagen forming

110

What is the name of the cellular reproduction process in replacing damage cells from an injury in the epidermis

Mitosis

111

How does the dermis heal from an injury?

Red blood cells help create collagen that form a foundation to start filling in with new tissue.

112

Distinguish between basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, with respect to the cells involved and the seriousness of cancer.

Basale- affects mitotically active stem cells in the Basale, most common

squamous- affects keratinocytes of the spinosum, 2nd most common

melanoma- uncontrolled growth of melanocytes, most fatal

113

What is metastasis in which type of skin cancer is most likely to metastasize?

Melanoma

114

What do melanocytes do?

Dictate skin color through the amount of melanin it produces

115

What do Langerhans cells do?

They since danger and foreign bodies

116

What gives hair color on the skin?

Melanocytes in the basale layer

117

Where does squamous cell carcinoma start?

Keratinocytes in the spinosum layer

118

Where does melanoma start?

In in the melanocytes in the Basale layer

119

What does basal cell carcinoma affect?

Effects, mitotically, active stem cells

120

Where does ribosomes make proteins?

In the rough ER

121

Golgi bodies do what?

Receives protein from rough ER modifies and packages them

122

What happens to the protein after it’s packaged and transported from the Golgi apparatus?

secreted out of the cell into the basement membrane