2023 AP Gov Final Prep Notecards Flashcards


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created 3 months ago by Penny
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This is a shortened course for AP and these notes focus on the terms, documents and cases on Mr. Penny's final, and should not be construed as notes for the AP Exam
updated 3 months ago by Penny
Grade levels:
11th grade
Subjects:
us government
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1

Popular Sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government

2

Pluralist Theory

claims political power rests in the hands of groups of people, like interest groups

3

Implied Powers

Powers of the national government that are not directly written in the Constitution, but are reasonably suggested based on expressed powers and are allowed under the Necessary and Proper Clause.

4

Categorical Grant

money given by the national government to the states to be used for specific, narrowly defined purposes

5

Supremacy Clause

A section of Article VI of the Constitution, which states that the Constitution and federal laws overrule any state laws.

6

Impeachment

Formal accusation against a president or other public official, the first step in removal from office.

7

Judicial Branch

in charge of deciding the meaning of laws, how to apply them to real situations, and whether a law breaks the rules of the Constitution.

8

President

head of the executive branch of the federal government, the president has the authority to make decisions and take actions that have a significant impact on the nation.

9

Delegate Model

The theory that the role of an elected representative is to vote in a manner consistent with the views of his or her constituents.

10

Logrolling

A method of compromise in which membrete of Congress agree to support bills they would normally oppose in exchange for support from other members on bills that are of importance to them.

11

Precedent

An earlier appellate decision that guides courts in deciding later similar cases.

12

Electoral College

the constitutionally created group of individuals, chosen by the states, with the responsibility of formally selecting the next U.S. president

13

Cloture

A senate rule that can be used to end a filibuster with a supermajority of 60 votes.

14

Party-line Voting

Theory that voters with a strong party identification are likely to make voting decisions based on the party affiliation of the candidates.

15

Due Process Clause

A clause found in both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments designed to ensure that laws and the judicial process are fair and impartial. The fourteenth Amendments Fue Process Clause has been used as the vehicle to apply Federal.

16

Participatory Democracy

The theory that citizens hold the power in a democracy, emphasizing their widespread rights participation in politics, civic engagement, and the principle of majoritarianism.

17

Elitist Theory

Concept where decisions are made by groups with a disproportionate amount of some valuable resource.

18

Enumerated Powers

The powers or areas of authority of the federal government that are directly listed in the Constitution.

19

Block Grant

the annual sum of money that is awarded by the federal government to a state or local government body to help fund a specific project or program.

20

Necessary and Proper Clause

a clause in Article I of the constitution that gives congress the authority to create any laws related to the expressed powers, thus creating implied powers.

21

House of Representatives

elected by the people, proportionate to the amount of citizens, originally l representative for every 30,000 (slaves counted as 3/5) Term is 2 years (Population reevaluated every 10 years)

22

Presidential Cabinet

the advisory group selected by the president to aid him in making decisions and coordinating the work of the federal government

23

Revenue

The financial resources of the federal government

24

Gerrymandering

The process by which the majority party in a state legislature may draw congressional or state legislative district boundaries to favor that party. The intended result is a disproportionate number of members of that party being elected and creating “safe” seats for the party.

25

Civil Liberties

The guarantees in the Constitution and especially the Bill of Rights protect individuals from interference by the federal government. These constitutional protections have been applied to the state governments through the process of selective incorporation under the Fourteenth Amendment’s Process Clause.

26

Partisan

an adherent or supporter of a person, group, party, or cause, especially a person who shows a biased, emotional allegiance

27

Winner-take-all system

all electoral votes for a state are given to the candidate who wins the most votes in that state

28

Retrospective Voting

occurs when the voter looks at the candidate’s past actions and the past economic climate and makes a decision only using these factors.

29

Demographics

the study of a population based on factors such as age, race and sex

30

Representative Democracy

a form of democracy in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives

31

Federalist

People who supported ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government

32

Checks and Balances

Constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate.

33

Veto

the power of the president to reject a law proposed by Congress

34

Commerce Clause

Provision of Article I that gives Congress the expressed power to regulate interstate and international trade, which is the basis for much of the legislation passed by congress.

35

Three-Fifths compromise

Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.

36

Senate

elected by House of Representatives, 6 year term

37

Judiciary

in charge of deciding the meaning of laws, how to apply them to real situations, and whether a law breaks the rules of the Constitution

38

Iron Triangle/Issue Network

a long-lasting, mutually advantageous, and strong(iron) relationship involving three components: an interest group, a congressional committee, and an executive branch agency.

39

Redistricting

the process of drawing electoral district boundaries, takes place in the United States following the completion of each decennial census to account for population shifts

40

Civil Rights

The obligation of the federal government to protect citizens from discrimination; based on the Equal Protection

Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

41

Bipartisan

Agreement between the two major political parties about a particular bill, policy, or issue.

42

Electors

a person who has the right to vote in an election.

43

Rational-Choice Voting

assumes that political actors will make decisions based on their own benefit, carefully weighing all choices

44

Legitimacy

The people’s belief that the government has the right to rule

45

Direct Democracy

Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly

46

Anti-Federalist

Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally

47

Natural Rights

inherent rights that are believed to be necessary for all humans and include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

48

Unitary System

Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government

49

Federalism

a system of government with a written constitution in which power is divided among national, state, and local government.

50

Executive Branch

responsible for enforcing the laws and implementing the policies set by the legislative branch

51

Congress

A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.

52

Politico Model

the theory that the role of an elected representative is to vote based on the preferences of his or her constituents (delegate model) or on his or her conscience (trustee model). The choice depends on the issue and the degree of the public concern about a particular policy decision.

53

Political Action Committee (PAC)

organizations created to raise money for political campaigns and spend money to influence policy and politics

54

Reapportionment

the redistribution of 435 House seats among the 50 states to account for population shifts. This occurs every ten years following the national census.

55

Liberal Ideology

An ideology favoring less government control over social behavior and more greater regulation of businesses and of the economy

56

Legislation

all laws, declares war, regulates interstate and foreign commerce and controls taxing and spending policies.

57

Equal Protections Clause

Fourteenth Amendment clause that forms the basis for civil rights claims. Courts have interpreted the clause to require the federal government to address and prevent discriminatory practices.

58

Concurrent Powers

Powers that are granted to both federal and state governments, such as the power to tax, spend and barrow money.

59

Limited Government

A government that is subject to strict limits on its lawful uses of power, and hence on its ability to deprive people of their liberty.

60

Establishment Clause

First amendment clause preventing the given element from supporting or associating with any religion, except in the most limited ways.

61

Seperation of Powers

Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.

62

Republic

a representative form of government that is ruled according to a charter, or constitution

63

Legislative Branch

made up of the House and Senate, known collectively as the Congress. Among other powers, the legislative branch makes all laws, declares war, regulates interstate and foreign commerce and controls taxing and spending policies.

64

Supreme Court

The highest court in the federal government

65

Trustee Model

the theory that the role of an elected representative is to vote based on his or her conscience in the best interest of society, even if this results in choices that do not please a majority of his or her constituency

66

Pork Barrel

Federal spending intended to benefit a particular district or set of constituents

67

Independent Agency

created by Congress and independent of the executive. Intended to enforce regulations free of political influence

68

Conservative Ideology

an ideology favoring more control of social behavior, fewer regulations on businesses, and less government interference in the economy.

69

Filibuster

the practice of using the Senate rule allowing continuous debate to delay legislative action

70

Prospective Voting

Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected

71

Symbolic Speech

nonverbal, non written forms of communication, such as flag burning, wearing armbands, and burning of draft cards.

72

Interest Group

An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals

73

Political Party

An organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy.

74

Federal System

Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States