Campbell Biology: General Biology Final ALL MULTIPLE CHOICE Flashcards

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Campbell Biology
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General Biology I - LeTourneau University Dr. Fredrick Baliraine Fall 2023
updated 3 months ago by ChastainReagan
biology 1113, science, life sciences, biology
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In the formation of biofilms, such as on unbrushed teeth, cell signaling serves what function? EXAM 3



When neurons respond to a particular neurotransmitter opening gated ion channels the neurotransmitter is what part of the signal pathway? EXAM 3

Signaling molecule


Testosterone functions inside a cell by? EXAM 3

Binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes


What is inhibited by a drug that blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins? EXAM 3

Receptor tyrosine kinase activity


How can one hormone such as estrogen, mediate so many effects? EXAM 3

Estrogen binds to specific receptors inside many kinds of cells, each of which have different responses to its binding


The centromere is a region in which? EXAM 3

Chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase


Separate pieces of chromatin from eukaryotic (animal) nucleus consist of what? EXAM 3

Two long strands of DNA plus proteins


The drug Taxol affects what? EXAM 3

S phase of cell cycle


The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following? EXAM 3

Every human cell


True statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction EXAM 3

In sexual individuals transmit 50% of genes to offspring


The human X and Y chromosomes EXAM 3

Include genes that determine individuals sex


Karotypes result from which EXAM 3

Ordering of human chromosome images


A mother who is 39 years old gives birth to a child with Down Syndrome, what is the probable cause of the child's condition? EXAM 3

One member of the couple underwent nondisjunction in gamete production

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What signaling is represented by the image below? EXAM 3


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What do the dots between the structure in the image below represent? EXAM 3



What does it mean when we use the terms monohybrid and dihybrid cross? EXAM 3

Dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for 2 characters and a monohybrid cross involves only 1


a sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes one for head (H) and one for tail (T), genotype HhTt which of the following genotypes is likely? EXAM 3



Cattle roan coat color, What are the parents with 4 children with the ratio of 1 red: 2 roan: 1 white. EXAM 3

roan x roan


Cystic fibrosis affects a lot of stuff and results in a lot of symptoms what best describes this? EXAM 3



What is the reason linked genes are inherited together? EXAM 3

close together on same chromosome


Recombination between linked genes comes about for what reason? EXAM 3

crossovers between these genes result in chromosomal exchange


There are abnormal chromosomes in malignant tumors, which of the following might then occur to make the cancer worse? EXAM 3

Expression of inappropriate gene products


Example of polygenic inheritance? EXAM 3 BONUS

skin pigmentation in humans


Ideal fetal testing in humans? EXAM 3 BONUS

preformed at the earliest time in pregnancy


gene homozygous = death at or about time of birth what could stop this? EXAM 3 BONUS

design a test for identifying heterozygous carriers of the allele


A dwarf red snapdragon is crossed with a plant homozygous for tallness and white flowers. What is the F1 phenotype? EXAM 3 BONUS

tall, pink


Dunchenne muscular dystrophy how likely is it for a woman to have this disease? EXAM 3 BONUS

very rarely would a woman have this condition; the condition would be due to a chromosome error.


A woman is homozygous and her husband is heterozygous for a recessive disease what is the probability the child is healthy? EXAM 3 BONUS



Both parents are homozygous for recessive trait probability child doesn't have it? EXAM 3 BONUS



Genomic imprinting involves the addition of a methyl (-CH3) it depends on sex of parent who transmits the gene, which is true? EXAM 3 BONUS

Methylation must be reversible in ovarian and testicular cells


How many unique gametes in AaBbCCDdEEGg EXAM 3 BONUS



True or False: A heritable feature such as flower color is a trait? EXAM 3 BONUS



An individual with genotype XXY has what condition? EXAM 3 BONUS

Klinefelter syndrome


Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis? EXAM 3 BONUS

to allow chromosomes to move without becoming entangles and breaking


Proteins involved in regulation of cell cycle and show fluctuations in concentration during cell cycle are what? EXAM 3 BONUS



Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following? EXAM 3 BONUS

as cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing


For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells which is most desirable? EXAM 3 BONUS

interferes with rapidly dividing cells


What are cells found in? EXAM 1

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic organisms


In comparison to Eukaryotes, prokaryotes are. EXAM 1



When a person gets dehydrated while exercising, their pituitary gland releases ADH, a hormone that signals the kidney to retain more water. This is called? EXAM 1

Negative feedback regulation


What are the two domains of Prokaryotes? EXAM 1

Bacteria and Archaea


In his transformation experiment, Griffith observed that? EXAM 4

Mixing it with heat killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into pathogenic form


What considerations did Hershey and Chase have in mind in designing their experiment to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material EXAM 4

DNA contains phosphorous, whereas protein does not


After completing of their double-helix model, Watson and Crick recalled that their DAN molecule could carry an enormous amount of the hereditary information in which of the following? EXAM 4

nucleotide base sequences


Based on figure 2 below, which of these experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?

Decreasing extra cellular pH


A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in ________ EXAM 2



The difference between pinocyosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that _________ EXAM 2

pinocyosis is non-selective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity


The voltage across a membrane is called the ____ EXAM 2

membrane potential


The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that _________. EXAM 2

light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells


What technique would be most appropriate to use observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division? EXAM 2

standard light microscopy


What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in eukaryotes? EXAM 2

It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into one of the


A cell with an extensive area of smooth, endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____________________________. EXAM 2

synthesize large quantities of lipids


Overton has a genetic abnormality which causes his cells to accumulate and get clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition? EXAM 2

the lysosome


Suppose a young boy is always tired and fatigued, suffering from a metabolic disease. Which of the following organelles is most likely involved with this disease? EXAM 2



A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its _____________________. EXAM 2

Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix


Jerry completed a series of experiments and found that a protein-digesting enzyme (intestinal protease) functions best when the pH is 8.0 and the temperature is 37*C. During an experiment, he used some of the procedures listed below. Which procedure would have the least effect on the rate of protein? EXAM 2

Decreasing the amount of light


Anabolic pathways _________________. EXAM 2

consume energy to build up polymers from monomers


Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an organism. How does this relate to the second law of thermodynamics? EXAM 2

As a consequence of growing, organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.


A system at chemical equilibrium ______________. EXAM 2

can do no work


When ATP releases some energy, it also releases inorganic phosphate. What immediately happens to the inorganic phosphate in the cell? EXAM 2

It may be used to form a phosphorylated intermediate


Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zinc most likely functions as __________________. EXAM 2

a cofactor necessary for enzyme activity


A colony of bacteria growing on a culture medium is successfully synthesizing an organic compound. Which procedure would be least likely to have an effect on this synthesis? EXAM 2

Increasing the number of hormone molecules in the colony.

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Based on your knowledge of biology, examine the diagram below, which represents a chemical reaction that occurs in the human body, and answer the question below.

substances X and Y are examples of what kind of molecule? EXAM 2

simple sugar


Which of the listed statements describes the results of the following reaction? C6H12O6 +6O2 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + Energy


C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced


Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are these domains? EXAM 2 BONUS

Bacteria and Archaea


What structure is common to plant and animal cells? EXAM 2 BONUS



In a bacterium, we will find DNA in the ________________. EXAM 2 BONUS

the nucleoid


A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely __________________. EXAM 2 BONUS

primarily producing proteins in the cytosol


You have a friend who lost 7 kg (15 lbs) of fat on a regimen of strict diet and exercise. How did the fat leave his body? EXAM 2 BONUS

It was released as CO2 and H2O


In autumn, the leaves of deciduous trees change colors. This is because chlorophyll is degraded and ___________________. EXAM 2 BONUS

carotenoids and other pigments are still present in the leaves


CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing lots of water. They can do this because they ________________________. EXAM 2 BONUS

fix CO2 into organic acids during the night


A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from _________________. EXAM 2 BONUS

nearly any eukaryotic organism


Muscle cells differ from nerve cells mainly because they ____ EXAM 4

express different genes


DNA in one of your brain cells is? EXAM 4

the same as the DNA in one of your heart cells


Mary wants to clone a long sequence of DNA approximately 200kb which vector should she use? EXAM 4

bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)


You are cutting DNA, and you have a plasmid single sit for Y but not for X you need to? EXAM 4

cut the DNA again with restriction enzyme Y and insert these fragments cut with the same enzyme


RNAi methodology uses double-stranded pieces of RNA, which of the following might be more useful? EXAM 4

decrease production from a harmful gain of function mutated gene


As genetic technology makes testing for wide variety of genotypes possible, which of the following is likely to be an increasing trouble issue? EXAM 4

the need to legislate for protection of the privacy of genetic information


Supposing you undertook an experiment to analyze the nucleotide composition of DNA which of the following would you expect to find? EXAM 4

A+C = G+T


What does the term "anti-parallel" mean regarding the DNA strands in the double-helix? EXAM 4

the 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand


The elongation of the leading strand during DNP synthesis? EXAM 4

depends on the action of DNA polymerase


A particular triplet of bases in the templet strand of DNA is 5' AGT 3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is? EXAM 4

3' UCA 5'


A mutation that results in a stop codon at the wrong spot is called? EXAM 4

a nonsense mutation


Which of the following occurs in eukaryotic gene expression, but does not occur in prokaryotic gene expression? EXAM 4

the poly A-tail is added to the 3' end of an mRNA and a cap is added to the 5' end


The role of a metabolite that controls a repressible operon is to? EXAM 4

bind to the repressor protein and activate it


How does transcription of the structural genes in an inducible operon occur. EXAM 4

it starts when the pathway's substrate is present


Pharmacogenetics is an increasingly important discipline that uses genetic information to tailor the prescription of drug treatments to individuals. In the case of breast cancer, tumor biopsy specimens can be typed for a number of gene expression patterns. Together these can provide risk analysis to the likely aggressive growth and metastasis of the tumor. How can this most help the physician and patient? EXAM 4

this can help them decide whether and what type of chemotherapy is warranted


DNA technology has many medical applications. Which of the following is NOT done routinely at present times? EXAM 4

introduction of genetically engineered genes into human gametes


in recombinant DNA methods, the term vector can refer to? EXAM 4

a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a living cell


Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from? EXAM 4



Altering patterns of gene expression in prokaryotes would most likley serve an organisms survival by _____? EXAM 4

allowing an organism to adjust to changes in enviromental conditions


in colorectal cancer, several genes must be mutated for a cell to develop into a cancer cell. Which of the following kinds of genes would you expect to be mutated? EXAM 4

genes involved in control of the cell cycle


Which statement about bacterial cell walls is FALSE? EXAM 4

Cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions


Which of the following involves metabolic cooperating among prokaryotic cells? EXAM 4



A bacterium derives nutrition by digesting human intestinal contents. Humans lacking this bacterium have no measurable reproductive advantage or disadvantage relative to humans who harbor this bacterium consequently, the bacterium can be described as? EXAM 4

symbiont and commensal


if new genetic variation in the experimental populations arose solely by spontaneous mutations, then the most effective process for subsequently increasing the prevalence of the beneficial mutations in the population over the come for generations is? EXAM 4

binary fission


tumor suppressor genes EXAM 4

can encode proteins that promote DNA repair of cell-cell adhesion


In response to codon signals, prokaryotes can do which of the following? EXAM 4

increase the number and responsiveness of the ribosomes


During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme - catalyzed reaction has a Delta G of -20 kcal/mol, if you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction, what will be the Delta G for the new reaction? EXAM 2 BONUS

-20 kcal/mol


A chemical rection that has a positive Delta G is correctly described as? EXAM 2 BONUS



Which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis? EXAM 2 BONUS

Light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll.


A protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer one or more times is? EXAM 2 BONUS

a transmembrane protein


According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?EXAM 2 BONUS

They can move laterally along the plane of the membrane.


When biological membranes are frozen and then fractured, they tend to break along the middle of the bilayer. The best explanation for this is that? EXAM 2 BONUS

The hydrophobic interactions that hold the membrane together are weakest at this point.


Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes? EXAM 2 BONUS

Phagocytic white blood cells


Which of the following sets of materials are required by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes for replication? EXAM 4 BONUS

double stranded DNA, for kinds of dNTPs, primers, and origins


Which of the following statements describes the eukaryotic chromosome? EXAM 4 BONUS

it consists of a singular linear molecule of double-stranded DNA + proteins


A biochemist insulates, purifies, and combines in a test tube a variety of molecules needed for DNA replication, when she adds some DNA to the mixture, replication occurs, but each DNA molecule consists of a normal strand paired with numerous, unlinked segments of DNA a few hundred nucleotides long. What has she probably left of the mixture. EXAM 4 BONUS

DNA ligase


A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AAA. The anticodon on the TRNA that binds the mRNA codon is? EXAM 4 BONUS



Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on the specificity in the ..... EXAM 4 BONUS

Bonding of the anticodon to the codon and the attachment of amino acids to tRNA's


Which of the following describes proto-oncogenes? EXAM 4 BONUS

They can code for proteins associated with cell growth


What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retrovirus? EXAM 4 BONUS

It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis


Why are yeast cells frequently use as hosts for cloning? EXAM 4 BONUS

They are eukaryotic cells


Inducible enzymes EXAM 4 BONUS

Are produced when a small molecule inactivates the repressor proteins


Viral genomes may be any of the following except EXAM 4 BONUS

misfolded infectious proteins


Which of the following is true of prions EXAM 4 BONUS

They are infectious proteins that may covert brain proteins into misfolded proteins


Yeast has become, important in genetic engineering because it EXAM 4 BONUS



What do inducible enzymes do? EXAM 4 BONUS

Produce small molecules inactivate.


You like avocados? Which of the following do you and an avocado tree have in common? EXAM 1

You are both multicellular


Agrobacterium infects plants and causes them to form tumors. You are asked to determine how long a plant must be exposed to these bacteria to become infected. Which of the following experiments will provide the best data to address that question? EXAM 1

Measure the number of tumors formed on plants, which are exposed to agrobacterium for different lengths of time


Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common? EXAM 1



Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis? EXAM 1

I. It is testable

II. It is falsifiable

III. It produces quantitative data

IV. It produces results that can be replicated

I and II


About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which for of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter? EXAM 1

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen


Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize? EXAM 1

Hydrogen bonds


A salamander relies on hydrogen bonding to stick to various surfaces. Therefore, a salamander would have the greatest difficulty clinging to a ______. EXAM 1

surface of hydrocarbons


If the cytoplasm of a cell is at pH 7, and the mitochondrial matrix is at pH 8, then the concentration of H ions is _____? EXAM 1

Is 10 times higher in the cytoplasm than in the mitochondrial matrix


Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids? EXAM 1

Carboxyl and amino acids


Which of the following is the best explanation for why vegetable oil is a liquid at room temperature while animal fats are solid? EXAM 1

Vegetable oil has more double bonds than animal fats


A cell has enough available ATP to meet its needs for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or her ATP supply? EXAM 1

Catabolic processes are activated that generate more ATP


Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis? EXAM 1

An agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized


Which is the rarest property of water? EXAM 1

Solid water is less dense than liquid water


Which of the following defines a genome? EXAM 3

the complete set of an organism's genes


If a cell has completed the first meiotic division and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents? EXAM 3

It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meisosis


Which of the following occurs in meiosis but NOT in mitosis? EXAM 3

synapsis of chromosomes


Which of the following differentiates between independent assortment and segregation? EXAM 3

The law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one another


A student is looking through his light microscope (~450X) at a squashed and stained onion root tip. Some, but not all, of the cells have clearly visible chromosome strands. When a cell is in anaphase of mitosis, which of the following will he see? EXAM 3

a clear area in the center of the cell


Altering patterns of gene expression in prokaryotes would most likely serve the organism's survival in which of the following ways? EXAM 4

allowing the organism to adjust to changes in enviromental conditions