Ati Teas Secrets Study Guide - Teas 7 Prep Book, Six Full-Length Practice Tests (1,000+ Questions), Step-By-Step Video Tutorials: [Updated for the 7th: ATI-TEAS: Parts of a Cell Flashcards


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1

Eukaryote

DNA is found in multiple chromosomes; reproduces by mitosis; and include membrane-bound organelles

2

Prokaryote

reproduce by binary fission; DNA is usually found in a singular chromosome; has no organelles and no nucleus

3

ribosomes

involved in synthesizing proteins from amino acids; either mobile or embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum

4

Golgi complex

involved in synthesizing materials (like protein) that are eventually transported out of the cell; made of cisternae & has phosphate/sulfate "tags" that influence the structure and function of the protein

5

Vacuoles

sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal; plants usually have 1 big one while animals usually have multiple small ones

6

cytoskeleton

consists of microtubules and helps support/shape cell; in eukaryotes its made of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, and microtubules; important in cell division

7

microtubules

made of protein (tubulin); helps support cell by extending throughout cell which help cell resist compressional forces while also providing a framework for motor proteins to travel on; is the thickest component of the cytoskeleton

8

cytosol

liquid material in cell; mostly water and some floating particles

9

cytoplasm

cytosol + organelles found inside plasma membrane (not within nucleus)

10

cell (plasma) membrane

functions in the regulation and transportation of materials, cell to cell recognition, cell containment, and cell signaling; its made of phospholipid, chlolestoral, and protein molecules

11

microfilaments

are the thinnest components of the cytoskeleton; made of actin that form twisted looking filaments organized into bundles or networks; helps maintain cell shapes and are involved in cytokinesis, muscles contraction, and movement of cell

12

intermediate filaments

are components of the cytoskeleton that are thinner than microtubules but thicker than microfilaments; composed of over 50 types of proteins (which are cell specific); only play role in support the cell

13

endoplasmic reticulum

includes rough (has ribosomes) and smooth (has none) ER; its fused to the nuclear membrane and comprises the transport system of a cell; both of smooth + rough are made of cisternae; constitutes roughly half of the plasma membrane

14

Rough ER

is continuous w/ the nuclear envelope; outside looks like flattened sacs; ribosomes are modified, packaged in a vesicle, and sent to a different region within the cell (usually the golgi complex)

15

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes and is more tubular; membrane is continues with the ___ ER and the nucleus; involved in the synthesis of lipids (ex: phospholipids, cholesterol)

other functions: ___ ER of liver cells detoxify drugs, ___ ER of muscle cells regulates and stores calcium ions

16

nucleus

regulates and stores cellular DNA; site of DNA replication and transcription

17

chromosomes

highly condensed, threadlike rods of DNA

18

chromatin

consists of DNA and proteins; makes up chromosomes

19

Nuclear envelope

encloses structures of nuclei; has inner/outer membrane of lipids

20

Outer Membrane of Nuclear Envelope

is continuous with the ER which allows easy exchange of materials

21

Inner Membrane of Nuclear Envelope

is lined with protein filaments (nuclear lamina) which supports novels while aiding in the organization of chromatin