A force exerted against a given area.
The SI unit of pressure
Pounds per square inch (psi)
Pressure as the force (measured in pounds) applied to an area of
square inch. The pressure of the atmosphere at sea
level is about 14.7 psi.
Millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
Comes from the mercury barometer which measures the pressure
the earth’s atmosphere. The unit mmHg is used when
measuring blood pressure.
A gas that perfectly adheres to the kinetic molecular
theory of gases
kinetic molecular theory of gases
•Gas particles are far part from each other. Because of this, most of the volume of a gas is empty space.
•Gas particles are in constant random motion. The particles have a range of speeds.
•Gas particles have no attractive forces between them. When gas particles collide, energy is conserved.
• Gas particles are moving and therefore have kinetic energy. This energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
changes of state
The change that occurs when a substance that exists in one state of matter becomes another state of matter; for example, a solid becomes becomes a liquid or a liquid becomes a gas.
The change in state from a liquid to a solid.
The change in state from solid to liquid.
the change in state from liquid to gas
the change in state from gas to liquid
the change in state from a solid directly to a gas
the change in state from a gas directly to a solid
occurs when two phases of matter exchange particles at equal rates, such as when the rate of moving to the vapor phase equals the rate of moving into the liquid phase
the pressure caused by the particles of vapor above a liquid
the formation of gas bubbles of a liquid
The temperature at which the molecules of a substance change from a liquid to a gas(boil). At this temperature, the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
an attraction of opposite forces charges between molecules
attractive forces between two or more molecules that are caused by uneven distribution of electrons within the molecules
the weakest attractive force; an attraction formed from temporary (or induced) dipoles on molecules
A temporary, uneven distribution of the electrons over the surface of a molecule creating a brief separation of charge in the molecule
an uneven distribution of the electrons in a polar molecule caused by differences in the electronegativity of the atoms
the attraction of the partially positive end of one polar molecule to the partially negative end of a second polar molecule
the strong dipole dipole bonding attraction of a hydrogen, covalently bonded to an O, N, or F, to a nonbonding pair of electrons on an O, N, or F
an electrical attraction between an iron and a polar molecule
an attraction between a (+) and a (-) charge in or between compounds; also called an ionic bond or a a salt bridge
the temperature at which the molecules of a substance change from a solid to a liquid
the maximum amount of a substance that can dissolve in a specified amount of water at a given temperature
golden rule of solubility
like dissolves like
the product of a condensation reaction of three fatty acids and glycerol; also known as a fat or an oil
a condensation reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol to from an ester
an organic addition reaction where H and OH are added to the carbons in a carbon-carbon double bond
a compound that has both polar and non polar parts
a three dimensional spherical arrangement of soap molecules in water with the hydrophobic tails pointing inside, away from the water, and the hydrophilic heads pointing out into the water
an amphipathic compound that allows polar and nonpolar substances to mix
a lipid molecule composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol backbone that exists as a liquid at a room temperature; also known as a triglyceride
a lipid molecule composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol backbone that exists as a solid or semisolid at room temperature; also known as a triglyceride
a term used to describe organic compounds that have more than one double or triple bond
the primary structural component of cell membranes consisting of a glycerol backbone esterified with two fatty acids and a phosphate-containing group
fluid mosaic model
a model used to describe the nature of the cell membrane
a lipid containing a four membered fused ring structure called a steroid nucleus