Review Questions - The Reproductive System

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1

The structures that draw an ovulated oocyte into the female duct system are

A)Cilia
B)Fimbriae
C)Microvilli
D)Stereocilia

A)Cilia
B)Fimbriae

2

The usual site of embryo implantation

A)The uterine tube
B)The peritoneal cavity
C)The vagina
D)The uterus

D)The uterus

3

The male homologue of the female clitoris is

A)The uterus
B)The peritoneal cavity
C)The vagina
D)The penis

A)The uterus

4

Which of the following is correct relative to female anatomy?

A)The vaginal orifice is the most dorsal of the three openings in the perineum
B)The urethra is between the vaginal orifice and the anus
C)The anus is between the vaginal orifice and the urethra
D)The urethra is the most ventral of the two orifices in the vulva

D)The urethra is the most ventral of the two orifices in the vulva

5

Secondary sex characteristics are:

A)Present in the embryo
B)A result of male and female sex hormones increasing in amount at puberty
C)The testis in the male and the ovary in the female
D)Not subject to withdrawl once established

B)A result of male and female sex hormones increasing in amount at puberty

6

Which of the following produces the male sex hormone
A)Seminal glands
B)Corpus luteum
C)Developing follicles of the testes
D)Interstitual endocrine cells

D)Interstitual endocrine cells

7

Which will occur as a result of nondescent of the testes?

A)Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body
B)Sperm will have no means of exit from the body
C)Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes
D)Viable sperm will not be produced

D)Viable sperm will not be produced

8

The normal diploid number of human chromosomes

A)47
B)46
C)23
D)24

B) 46

9

Relative to the differences between mitosis and meiosis, choose the statements that apply only to events of meiosis

A)Tetrads present
B)Produce two daughter cells
C)Produce four daughter cells
D)Occur throughout life
E)Reduce the chromosomal number by half
F)Synapsis and crossover of homologues

A)Tetrads present
C)Produce four daughter cells
E)Reduce the chromosomal number by half
F)Synapsis and crossover of homologues

10

Hormones that directly regulate the ovarian cycle

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

C)FSH
F)LH

11

Chemicals in males that inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

E)Inhibin
H)Testosterone

12

Hormone that makes the cervical mucus viscous

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

G)Progesterone

13

Potentiates the activity of testosterone on spermatogenic cells

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

A)Androgen-binding protein

14

in females, exerts feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

B)Estrogen
E)Inhibin
G)Progesterone

15

Stimulates the secretion of testosterone

A)Androgen-binding protein
B)Estrogen
C)FSH
D)GnRH
E)Inhibin
F)LH
G)Progesterone
H)Testosterone

F)LH

16

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous phases. Starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive order is

A)menstrual, proliferative, secretory.
B)menstrual, secretory, proliferative.
C)secretory, menstrual, proliferative.
D)proliferative, menstrual, secretory.
E)Secretory, proliferative, menstrual

A)menstrual, proliferative, secretory.

17

Spermatozoa are to seminiferous tubules as oocytes are to

A)Finbriae
B)Corpus albicans
C)Ovarian follicles
D)Corpora lutea

C)Ovarian follicles

18

Which of the following does not add a secretion that makes a major contribution to semen?

A)prostate
B)bulbo-urethral glands
C)testes
D)ductus deferens

D)ductus deferens

19

The corpus luteum is formed at the site of

A)fertilization
B)ovulation
C)menstruation
D)implantation

B)ovulation

20

The sex of a child is determined by

A)The sex chromosome contained in sperm
B)The sex chromosome contained in oocyte
C)The number of sperm fertilizing the oocyte
D)The position of the fetus in the uterus

A)The sex chromosome contained in sperm

21

FSH is to estrogen as estrogen is to

A)Progesterone
B)LH
C)FSH
D)testosterone

B)LH

22

A drug that “reminds the pituitary” to produce gonadotropins might be useful as

A)A contraceptive
B)A diuretic
C)A fertility drug
D)An abortion stimulant

C)A fertility drug

23

Why is the term urogenital system more applicable to males than females?

In males, the urethra transports both urine and semen and thus serves both the urinary and reproductive systems; in females, the two systems are structurally and functionally separate.

24

Describe the major the major structural (and functional) regions of sperm.

The sperm regions are the head: the genetic (DNA-delivering) region; the midpiece: the metabolizing (ATP-producing) region; and the tail: the locomotor region.

25

Oogenesis in the female results in one functional gamete-the egg, or ovum. what other cells are produced? What is significance of this rather wasteful type of gamete production - production of a single functional gamete instead of four as seen in males?

Three tiny polar bodies, nearly devoid of cytoplasm, assure that the fertilized egg has enough nutrient reserves to support it during its journey to the uterus.

26

Describe the events and possible consequences of menopause.

The events of menopause include a decline in estrogen production, an anovulatory ovarian cycle, and erratic menstrual periods that become shorter in length and eventually cease entirely. Possible consequences of menopause include atrophy of the reproductive organs and breasts, dryness of the vagina, painful intercourse, vaginal infections, irritability and mood changes, intense vasodilation of the skin’s blood vessels (“hot flashes”), gradual thinning of the skin, loss of bone mass, and slowly rising blood cholesterol levels.

27

Define Menarche. What does it indicate

Menarche is the first menstrual cycle, occurring when the adult pattern of gonadotropin cycling is achieved.

28

Trace the pathway of sperm from the male testes to eh uterine tube of the female

The pathway of a sperm from the male testes to the uterine tubule of a female is as follows: testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, male urethra, vagina, uterus, and uterine tube.

29

In menstruation, the stratum functionalis is shed from the endometrium. explain the hormonal and physical factors responsible for this shedding.

As luteinizing hormone blood levels drop, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate. Progesterone levels fall, depriving the endometrium of hormonal support, and the spiral arteries kink and go into spasms. Denied oxygen, endometrial cells die, and as their lysosomes rupture the functional layer “self-digests.”

30

Both the epithelium of the vagina and the cervical glands of the uterus help prevent the invasion and spread of vaginal pathogens. explain how each of these mechanisms work.

The vaginal epithelium houses dendritic cells that act as antigen-presenting cells in the immune response, thus providing for early recognition of and attack against invading bacteria and viruses. The cervical mucous glands secrete glycogen, which is metabolized anaerobically by the vaginal mucosal cells to lactic acid, providing low vaginal pH that is bacteriostatic.

31

Some anatomy students were saying that the bulbourethral glands of male act like city workers who come around and clear parked cars from the street before a parade. What did they mean by this analogy?

The mucus produced by these glands cleanses the urethra of traces of urine before ejaculation of semen occurs.

32

A man swam in a cold lake for an hour an then noticed that his scrotum was shrunken and wrinkled. his first thought was that he had lost his testicles. What had really happened?

His cremaster muscles had contracted to bring the testes closer to the warmth of the body wall.

33

Critical thinking

Gina Marciano, a 44-year-old mother of eight children, visited her physician complaining of a “bearing down” sensation in her pelvis, low backache, and urinary incontinence. A vaginal examination showed that the external os of her cervix was just inside the vaginal orifice and her perineum exhibited large keloids (masses of scar tissue). Her history revealed that she was a member of a commune located in the nearby mountains that shunned hospital births (if at all possible). What do you think Gina's problem is and what caused it? (Be anatomically specific)

This patient has a prolapsed uterus, no doubt caused by the stress on the pelvic floor muscles during her many pregnancies. Because she also has keloids, one can assume that the central tendon to which those muscles attach has been severely damaged and many vaginal tears have occurred.

34

Critical thinking

Harry, a sexually active adolescent appeared in the emergency room complaining of a penile “drip” and pain during urination. An account of his recent sexual behavior was requested and recorded. (a) What do you think Harry's problem is? (b) What is the causative agent of this disorder? (c) How is the condition treated, and what may happen if it isn't treated?

The patient probably has a gonorrhea infection caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium. It is treated with penicillin and other antibiotics. If untreated, it can cause urethral constriction and inflammation of the entire male duct system.

35

Critical thinking

A 36 year old mother of four is considering tubal ligation as a means of ensuring that her family gets no larger. She asks the physician if she will become “menopausal” after the surgery. (a) How would you answer her question and explain away her concerns? (b) Explain what a tubal ligation is.

No, she will not be menopausal, because the ovaries will not be affected; they will continue to produce hormones. Tubal ligation is the cutting or cauterizing of the uterine tubes

36

Critical thinking

Mr. Scanlon, 76-year-old gentlemen is interested in a much younger woman and is concerned because of his age. He asks his urologist if he will be able to father a child. What questions would a physician ask this man, and what diagnostic tests would be ordered?

The man would be asked questions such as whether he has difficulty in urination or problems with impotence. The major test to be run would be to determine his sperm count.

37

Critical thinking

Lucy had both her left ovary and her right uterine tube removed surgically at age 17 because of a cyst and a tumor in these organs. Now at age 32, she remains healthy and is expecting her second child. How could Lucy conceive a child with just one ovary and one uterine tube, widely separated on opposite sides of the pelvis like this?

There is no continuity between the ovary and the uterine tube and the secondary oocytes are released into the peritoneal cavity. The ovulated oocyte is “coaxed” into the uterine tube by the activity of the fimbriae and tubal cilia. Though it is a longer journey, oocytes released on one side of the peritoneal cavity could ultimately enter the uterine tube on the opposite side.