Central Nervous System:
Contains: Brain & Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System:
Contains: Nerves -- Cranial (12 pair), Spinal Cord (31 pair)
Afferent, start from all over the body, end up in CNS.
Efferent, start from CNS, end up in muscles & glands.
Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary function, skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary function, cardiac/smooth muscles, and glands.
Sympathetic NS / Emergencies:
fight/flight, digestive & urinary system shuts down.
Parasympathetic NS / Emergencies:
Calms down the body, stimulates digestive & urinary system.
Main cells, makes/conducts nerve impulses.
Neuroglial / glial cells:
Support, connect, protect and provide nutritional support.
What are the 6 types of Neuroglial/ glial cells?
star shaped, blood brain barrier
make myelin around nerves in CNS
make myelin around nerves in PNS.
have cilia, line fluid filled cavities in CNS.
protect the body of the neurons.
Basic structural/ functional units of the nervous system.
What are the different components in Neurons?
Dendrites to body to axon.
Dendrites: short, branched, multiple
Body: Soma, contains nucleus (DNA)
Axon: Long, always one.
Communication, two neurons get close to communicate.
What is the gap between two neurons?
How do two neurons communicate?
1. Nerve impulse goes from A-->B
2. End of nerve, chemical (neurotransmitter)
3. Neurotransmitter: sticks to neuron & stimulates nerve impulse.
4. After communication, NT gets sent back to nerve.
Presematic Neuron: beginning
Postsematic Neuron: aftermath
Chemicals which make communication between two neurons possible.
Excitatory / Stimulatory:
"green traffic light", let's nerve impulses pass.
"red traffic light", stops nerve impulses.
-enkephalines & endorphins = natural painkillers
-gaba : inhibitory neurotransmitter which brings down the mood (depression).
Membrane covering the brain / spinal cord for protection.
Layers of the meninges:
-Dura Mater: has blood vessels, outermost layer.
-Arachnoid Mater: Thin, branched, No blood vessels
-Subarachnoid space (contains CSF)
-Pia Mater: Innermost layer, attached to brain and spinal cord.
Different components in the brain:
largest highest part of brain, only part of brain that has voluntary function
-gyri: bulging areas
-sulci: depressed areas
-fissures: deep crack
Longitudinal Fissure (In cerebrum)
separates brain into L & R hemispheres.
dominant one, verbal communications & analysis
non-dominant, non verbal communications, emotions, artistic abilities (painting & music)
Cerebrum works _____, L controls R, R controls L
Each hemisphere has _____ lobes, ____ all together>
2 lobes, 8 all together
largest lobe, personality, behavior, controlling movement, problem solving,
(left frontal lobe: broca's area (speech))
Hearing, memory, some emotions, sensory speech
(left temporal lobe: language comprehension)) -- Wernike's Area
Vision, Visual perception
Nerves going left/right, people who have wider ones can multitask.
2nd largest part of brain, located in the back of the brain, below occipital lobe.
helps w balance, posture, and coordination.
Cerebellum works _____. L controls L. R controls R.
*L and R lobe connected by the vermis
contains thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
Relaying center of the brain, conscious awareness of some senses. (Pain and Temperature)
Makes hormones, helps homeostasis: temperature, thirst, electrolytes, hunger, blood glucose, heart rate, sleep and wakefulness.
Pineal gland: melatonin, sleep hormone... melatonin goes up at night, down during the day.
contains CN III TO XII , lowest part of brain, vital center of brain , has 3 parts: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
reflex movement of head/neck in response to sound.
-Depth of respiration
Heart control center
-Respiratory control center: inspiration center & expiration center
-vasomotor: controls blood pressure
Olfactory Nerve: Smell
Optic Nerve: Vision
Oculomotor Nerve: moves eyeball, up, down, medial
Trochlea: rolling eyes
Trigeminal: largest CN, sensory of face, 3 branches
Abducens: lateral movement of the eyeball
Facial Nerve: face movement, taste
Vestibulocochlear: hearing and balance
glossopharyngeal nerve: swallowing food
vagus nerve: longest nerve, all visceral organs (chest, abdomen, and pelvic), parasympathetic
hypoglossal nerve: moving tongue, speech