Anatomy Block III- Forearm

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1

what is the humerus an attachment for

some forearm muscles

2

what are two bony landmarks on the ulna

styloid process

interosseus border

3

what are some bony landmarks on the radius

head
styloid process
interosseus border

4

is the head of the radius or ulna more distal

radius

5

how many carpals are there

8

6

how many phalanges are there

14, 2 for thumb, 3 for remaining digits

7

what does the interosseus membrane divide

flexor (anterior) compartment from extensor (posterio) muscles

8

why is the interosseus of the upper limb important

pronation/supination

9

what fascia is in the forearm

deep fascia of the forearm

10

what is the deep fascia of the forearm continuous with

brachial fascia

11

what is another name for the deep fascia of the forearm

antebrachial fascia

12

what forms compartmenst along with the interosseous membrane

deep fascia of the arm

13

what are two thickenings in the deep fascia of the forearm

flexor retinaculum
extensor retinaculum

14

where is the flexor retinaculum

anterior aspect of forearm

15

what flexor tendons don't get covered

palmaris longus

16

where is the extensor retinaculum

posterior aspect of forearm

17

what is the point of of the retinaculum

prevents bowstringing of tendons agaisnt skin and fascia themselves, keeps their advantage

18
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a. brachioradialis
b. pronator teres
c. flexor carpi radialis
d. palmaris longus
e. flexor carpi ulnaris

19

what is the action of the anterior forearm compartment

hand/wrist flexors and forearm pronators

20

what muscles are part of the anterior superficial layer

pronator teres
flexor carpi radialis
palmaris longus
flexor carpi ulnaris

21

where do all of the superficial muscles of the anterior superficial layer originate from

medial epicondyle off tendon called flexor tendon

22

what innervates pronator teres

median nerve

23

what innervates flexor carpi radialis

median nerve

24

what innervates palmaris longus

median nerve

25

what innervates flexor carpi ulnaris

ulnar nerve

26

what innervates flexor digitorum superficialis

median nerve

27

what innervates flexor digotorum profundus on digits 2-3

median nerve

28

what innervates flexor digitorum profundus on digits 4-5

ulnar nerve

29

what innervates flexor pollicis longus

anterior interosseous nerve

30

what innervates pronator quadratus

anterior interosseous nerve

31

what is innervated by the median nerve in the anterior forearm

pronator teres
flexor carpi radialis
palmaris longus
flexor digitorum superficialis

32

what is innervated by the ulnar nerve in the anterior forearm

flexor carpi ulnaris
flexor digitorum profundus 4-5

33

what is innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve in the anterior forearm

flexor pollicis longus
pronator quadratus

34

what is the action of the pronator teres

flex forearm, no hand/wrist flexion (only one that does not cross wrist), PRONATION mainly

35

what is the action of the flexor carpi radialis

flex forearm, hand wrist flexion, forearm pronator and radial deviation (hand abduction)

36

what is the action of the palmaris longus

wrist flexion only

37

what is interesting about the palmaris longus

missing in a fair number of people

38

what does the palmaris longus have and what does that thing attach to

long central tendon, attaches to palmar aponeuroses

39
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a. supniator
b. flexor digitorum superficialis

40
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a. supinator
b. flexor digitorum profundus
c. flexor pollicis longus
d. pronator quadratus

41

what innervates the brachioradialis

radial nerve

42

what innervates the extensor carpi radialis brevis

deep branch of radial nerve

43

what innervates the extensor carpi radialis longus

radial nerve

44

what innervates the extensor digitorum

posteiror interosseous nerve

45

what innervates the extensor digiti minimi

posteiror interosseous nerve

46

what innervates the extensor carpi ulnaris

posterior interosseous nerve

47

what innervates the supinator

deep branch of radial nerve

48

what innervates the abductor pollicis longus

posterior interosseous nerve

49

what innervates the extensor pollicis longus

posterior interosseous nerve

50

what innervates the extensor pollicis brevis

posterior interosseous nerve

51

what innervates the extensor indicis

posterior interosseous nerve

52

what is in the intermediate layer of anterior muscles

flexor digitorum superficialis

53

where does the flexor digitorum superficialis start and end

medial epicondyle and radius to fingers

54

what is the action of the flexor digitorum superficialis

flex wrist and fingers PIP joint 2-5

55

what muscles are in the deep layer of the anterior forearm compartment

flexor digitorum profundus
flexor pollicis longus
pronator quadratus

56

what do the flexor digitorum profundus go to

go to distal phalanges and flex DIP joint 4-5

57

what do flexor pollicis longus go to

more latera, flexes thumb joint

58

what does the pronator quadratus not do

hand/wrist flexion

59

what does the pronator quadratus do

helps pronation

60

what nerves are in the anterior compartment

median nerve
ulnar nerve

61
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a. median nerve
b. ulnar nerve
c. ulnar artery
d. common interosseous artery
e. median nerve
f. radial artery
g. anterior interosseous artery and nerve

62

what vessels are in the anterior compartment

ulnar artery
radial artery
anterior interosseous artery

63

what does the median nerve innervate in the anterior forearm

all forearm muscles except medial 1/2 flexor digitorum profundus and flexor carpi ulnaris

(and its branch the anterior interosseous nerve innervates the flexor pollis longus and the pronator quadratus)

64

what does the median nerve give off

anterior interosseous nerve

65

where does the anterior interosseous nerve run

along top of anterior surface of interosseous membrane

66

what does the anterior interosseous nerve innervate

flexor pollicis longus
pronator quadratus

67

what does the ulnar nerve innervate

medial 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor carpi ulnaris

68

where does the ulnar nerve go

intrinsic hand on medial side

69

where does the ulnar artery run

along medial side

70

where does the radial artery run

along lateral side, more superficial and better to get pulse from

71

where does the anterior interosseous artery run

from common interosseous artery from ulnar artery

72

what is the shared action of the posterior forearm compartment

wrist extensors and forearm supinators

73

what muscles are in the superficial layer of the posterior forearm muscles

brachioradialis
extensor carpi radialis longus
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extensor digitorum
extensor digiti minimi
extensor carpi ulnaris

74
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a. brachioradialis
b. extensor carpi radialis longus
c. extensor carpi radialis brevis
d. extensor digitorum
e. extensor carpi ulnaris

75
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a. supinator
b. abductor pollicis longus
c. extensor pollicis brevis
d. extensor indicis
e. extensor pollicis longus

76

what is the action of brachioradialis

weak flexion of forearm, holding it at 90 degrees

77

what innervates the brachioradialis

radial nerve

78

what does the extensor carpi radialis longus do

helps extend wrist, goes with flexor carpi radialis to get wrist abduction (radial deviation)

79

what is the role of extensor digitorum

gives rise to 4 tendons on all 4 finguers

80

what does the extensor digiti minimi do

pinky extension

81

where does the extensor carpi ulnaris go

metacarpal bones

82

what does the extensor carpi ulnaris do

wrist extension and wrist adduction with flexor carpi ulnaris

83

what are the deep posterior forearm muscles

supinator
abductor pollicis longus
extensor pollicis longus
extensor pollicis brevis
extensor indicis

84

what does the supinator do

only supination of the forearm with help from biceps brachii

85

what does the supinator wrap around

radius, it is deep

86

what is the action of abductor pollicis longus

thumb abduction

87

where does extensor pollicis longus run

off ulna, more medial on back of arm

88

where does extensor pollicis brevis go

more distally than extensor pollicis longus

89

what does extensor indicis do

extends index finger to a point

90
card image

a. radial nerve
b. deep branch of radial nerve

91

what are the nerves in the posterior compartment

radial nerve

92

what are the vessels in the psoterior compartment

posterior interosseous artery

distal portion of anterior interosseous artery

93
card image

a. supinator
b. posterior interosseous nerve
c. posterior interosseous artery

94

what does the radial nerve innervate (muscles)

brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longsu

95

what are teh branches of the radial nerve

deep branch

posterior interosseous nerve

96

what does the deep branch of the radial nerve innervate

supinator and extensor carpi radialis brevis

97

where is the posterior interosseous nerve off of

deep branch of radial nerve, innervates the remainder of the posterior compartment muscles

98

where is the posterior interosseous artery from

common interosseus artery in anterior compartment

99

what side of the forearm is the carpal tunnel on

atnerior side

100

what is within the carpal tunnel

tendons of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus

median nerve

synovial sheaths around flexor tendons

101

what is carpal tunnel syndrome

overuse leading to inflammatin and swelling in a small area, can decrease space and impingue on medial nerve

102

where are the differentces in sensation typically with carpal tunnel syndrome

lateral 3 fingures, some thumb, but not always palm of hand

103

what can start wasting due to median nerve compression

intrinsic muscle of thumb

104

what is Phalen's test

compresses carpal tunnel space and can exacerbate things and cause issues

105

what can help carpal tunnel syndrome

exercising, bracing, surgery better on the medial side

106

what is the anatomical snuff box

triangular depression on lateral side of wrist

107
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a. extensor pollicis longus
b. extensor pollicis brevis
c. radial artery

108

what forms the anatomical snuff box

tendons of abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor pollicis longus

109
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a. medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
b. posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm
c. lateral cutaenous nerve of forearm

110
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a. posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm
b. lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

111

what does the cutaneous innervation of the forearm

lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
medial cutaneous nerve of forearm
posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm