Anatomy Block III- Shoulder, Axilla, Arm, Cubital Fossa Flashcards


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1

what are the upper arm regions

shoulder
axilla
arm
cubital fossa

2

what surface of the elbow is the cubital fossa

anterior

3

where does the pectoral girdle wrap around

axial skeleton

4

what does the pectoral girdle articulate with

humerus

5

what consists the bony architecture of the deltoid region

pectoral girdle
humerus

6

what bones are part of the pectoral girdle

clavicle
scapula

7

what does the spine of the scapula end in

acromion proces

8

where is the acromion process

seen most laterally

9

where is the coracoid process

seen most anteriorly, serves as attachment point for some muscles

10

where is the greater tubercle on the humerus

more lateral

11

where is the lesser tubercle on the humberus

more medial

12

what is between the greater and lesser tubercles

intratrabecular groove/sulcus

13

what are the anterior axioappendicular muscles

pec major
pec minor
subclavius
serratus anterior

14
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a. subclavius
b. pec major
c. serratus anterior

15
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a. serratus anterior

16
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a. descending part of trapezius
b. middle part of trapezius
c. deltoid
d. teres major
e. ascending part of trapezius
f. latissimus dorsi
g. teres major
h. rhomboid major
i. rhomboid minor
j. levator scapulae
k. teres minor

17

what is the action of the anterior axioappendicular msucles

move pectoral girdle

18

where does pec major insert

anterior humerus

19

what are the actions of pec marjo

adduction and flexion of arm

depress scapula also

20
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a. sternocostal head of pec major
b. clavicular head of pec major

21

what levels does the pec major clavicular head use

C5-C6 (lateral pectoral , but not C7)

22

what levels does the sternocostal pec major head use

C7-T1 (C7 lateral and medial pectoral n)

23

where does teh clavicular head of pec major come off of

clavicle

24

where does the sternocostal head of the pec major come off

sternum and ribs

25

what is the action of pec minor

stabilizes scapula

26

what does pec minor attach to

ribs 3, 4, 5 to coracoid process

27

what innervates pec minor

medial pectoral nerve

28

what levels make up the medial pectoral nerve

C8-T1

29

where is the subclavius

small muscle under clavicle

30

what does the subclavius do

holds clavicle down

31

what nerve innervates subclavius and what are its levels

nerve to subclavius (C5-C6)

32

what is the action of serratus anterior

draws scapula anteriorly along thoracic cage and hold it against thoracic wall (winged scapula when long thoracic nerve injured)

33

where does the serratus anterior come off

medial border of scapula then forward to attach to the ribs

34

what are the superficial posterior axioappendicular muscles (extrinsic shoulder)

trapezius and latissimus dorsi

35

where do superficial posterior axioappendicular msucles originate from

axial skeleton

36

what is the role of the trapezius

elevate, depress, retract scapula

37

what innervates the trapezius

spinal accessry nerve

38

what supplies the sensory to the trapezius

C3 and C4

39

what is the role of the latissimus dorsi

extend, adducts arm

40

where does the lat attach

to humerus distal to shoulder joint

41

what innervates the lat and what are its levels

thoracodorsal nerve C6-C8

42

what are teh deep posterior axioappendicular msucles

levator scapulae
rhomboid major
rhomboid minor

43

what do the deep posteiror axioappendicular msucles do

help rotate scapula

44

what does tehe levator scapula do

elevate scapula and rotate scapula

45

what does the rhomboid major do

retract scapula and rotate scapula

46

what does the rhomboid minor do

retract scapula and rotate scapula

47

what innervates the deep posterior axioappendicular muscles

dorsal scapular nerve C5

48

where do the scapulohumeral muscles originate

pectoral girdle

49

what do the scapulohumeral muscles act on

shoulder region

50

what are the actions of the deltoid

abducts, flexes, extends arm

51

why is the deltoid so powerful

multipennate structure with several central tendons with lots of fibers angled into it

52

which part of the delt flexes the arm

frontal

53

which part of the delt extends the arm

rear

54

what innervates the delt and what levels

axillary nerve C5-C6

55

where is teres major

above latissimus dorsi

56

what innervates teres major (nerve and levels)

C5-C6 lower subscapular nerve

57

what is the actino of teres major

helps adduct the arm and does some rotation?

58

what are the rotator cuff muscles

supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres major
subscapularis

59
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a. supraspinatus
b. subscapularis

(anterior view)

60
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a. infraspinatus
b. teres minor
c. supraspinatus

61

where is the supraspinatus

superior to spine of scapula

62

does the supraspinatus rotate

no

63

what does supraspinatus do

helps initiate abduction until in a more advantageous position so deltoid can help

64

what usually gets hurt in rotator cuff injuries

supraspinatus

65

where is infraspinatus

below spine of scapula

66

what is the action of infraspinatus

lateral rotator of arm

67

where is teres major

inferior border of scapula

68

what does teres minor do

lateral rotator

69

what innervates teres minor

axillary nerve C5-C6

70

where is subscapularis

in subscapular fossa between scapula and thoracic cage

71

what does subscapularis do

provides medial rotation

helps decelerate arm after a throw (eccentric contractions help slow arm down)

72

what innervates the subscapularis

upper and lower subscapular nerve C5-C7

73

what is the axilla

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pyramidal space just inferior to glenohumeral joint

74
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a. pec minor
b. coracobrachialis
c. short head of biceps brachii
d. long head of biceps brachii
e. deltoid
f. infraspinatus bursa
g. infraspinatus
h. subscapularis
i. serratus anterior
j. long thoracic nerve
k. pectoralis major muscle

75

what is the apex of the axilla

open space between axilla and posterior triangle of neck

76

what bones are in the apex of the axilla

scapula
clavicle
first rib

77

what makes up the base of the axilla

skin and fascia: concave, forming axillary fossa

78

what makes up the anterior wall of the axilla

pec major
pec minor
anterior axillary fold is the most inferior part

79

what makes up the posterior wall of the axilla

scapula
subscapularis
teres major
latissimus dorsi
posterior axillary fold is most inferior part

80

what makes up the medial wall of the axilla

thoracic wall and serratus anterior

81

what makes up the lateral wall of the axilla

intertubecular sulcus on humerus where muscles insert around on medial side of humerus

82

wht are the neurovascular contents of the axilla

axillary vein
brachial plexus
axillary artery

83

where is the first part of the axillary artery

between first rib and medial border of pec minor

84

what artery comes off the first part of the axillary artery

superior thoracic artery

85
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...

86
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...

87
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...

88

where is the 2nd part of the axillary artery

deep to pec minor

89

what are the branches off the 2nd part of the axillary artery

thoracoacromial artery
lateral thoracic artery

90

where does the thoracoacromial artery come off the 2nd part of the axillary artery

just medial to pec minor

91

what re teh branches off the thoracoacromial artery

pectoral
deltoid
acromial
clavicular

92

where does the lateral thoracic artery extend

down thoracic cage on lateral border if not deep to pec minor

93

where is the third part of the axillary artery

between pec minor and teres major

94

what are teh branches off the 3rd part of teh axillary artery

subscapular artery
anterior circumflex artery
posterior circumflex artery

95
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...

96

what does the subscapular artery soon become

circumflex scapular artery
thoracodorsal artery

97

where does the circumflex scapular artery go and what does it anastomose with

curls around and anastomosse with suprascapular artery in back part of shoulder

98

where does the thoracodorsal artery go

cursl around inferior border of scapula and anastomoses with intercostal arteries

99

why is there anastomosing around scapula

because it moves so much

100

where do the anterior and posteiror circumflex humeral arteries go

wrap around head of humerus

101

what do humeral fractures cause problems with arterially

anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries, can lead to avascular necrosis

102

wht type of fascia is in the arm

superficial fascia
deep fascia

103

what is within the superficial fascia

cutaneous nerves and superficial veins and lymphatics

104

what is the deep/brachial fascia continuation of

pectoral fascia, becomes deep fascia of forearm

105

what does the deep fascia of the arm do

divides into compartments of arm

106

what is the bone of the arm

humerus

107

what is the shared action of the anterior compartment of the arm

elbow flexion

108
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...

109

what are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm

biceps brachii
coracobrachialis
brachialis

110

what is the action of biceps brachii

elbow flexion
helps flex shoulder too

111

where does the short head of biceps brachii insert

coracoid process

112

where does long head of biceps brachii insert

travels in intertrabecular groove/sulcus and attaches to superior portion of glenoid, part of scapula

113

does biceps brachii have an insertion on the humerus

no

114

what does coracobrachialis do

shoulder flexor

115

whwere does coracobrachialis insert

mid distal humerus

116

where does brachialis attach to the humerus

lower half

117

where does brachialis attach other than to humerus

ulna

118

what is the major action of the brachialis

major forearm flexor

119

what artery and vein supply the anteiror compartment

brachial artery and vein

120

what nerves run in the anterior compartment of the arm

proximal 1/2 of ulnar nerve

median nerve

musculocutaneous nerve

121

what doe the musculocutaneous nerve give off

lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

122

what is the shared action of the posterior arm compartmetn

elbow extension

123
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...

124

what are the trhee heads of the triceps brachii

long head
lateral head
medial head

125

where does the long head of the triceps brachii run

crosses shoulder joint and attaches to scapula

126

what does teh triceps brachii do

elbow extension, shoulder extension with long head

127

where does the lateral head of the triceps brachii attach

proximal humerus

128

what does the anconeus look like

triangle

129

where does the anconeus originate and insert

lateral epicondyle of humerus to ulna

130

what does the anconeus do

some elbow extension

131

what artery gives blood to the posterior compartment of the arm

deep brachial artery, which runs on the posterior side of the humerus

132

what nerve innervates the posterior compartment of the arm

radial nerve

133

where is teh distal 1/2 of teh ulnar nerve

very superficial, hitting elbow hits ulnar nerve

134

what supplies cutaneous innervation to the upper shoulder

supraclavicular nerves

135
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...

136
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...

137
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...

138

what supplies cutaneous innervation to the upper lateral arm

cutaneous branches of axillary nerve

139

what supplies cutaneous innervation to medial arm

intercostobrachial nerve

140

what supplies cutaneous innervation to medial and anterior arm

medial brachial cutaneous nerve

141

what supplies cutaneous innervation to posterior and lower lateral arm

cutaneous branches of radial nerve

142
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...

143

what is the cubital fossa

triangular region on anterior side of elbow joint

144

what is the superior border of the cubital fossa

line connecting epicondyles of humerus

145

what is the lateral border of the cubital fossa

brachioradialis; helps hold elbow flexion

146

what is the medial border of the cubital fossa

pronator teres

147

what is the bicipital aponeurosis

continuation of biceps brachii tendon onto the forearm fascia

148

what provides the arterial supply to the cubital fossa

brachial artery, divides into radial and ulnar

149

wht provides the venous drainage to the cubital fossa

brachial veins, typically paired

150

what nerves run in the cubital fossa

median nerve
radial nerve