The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
B) in the walls of the tract organs
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must
undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is
C) chemical digestion
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are
made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
The structure known as the fauces is the ________.
D) passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx
The epithelial membrane called the mucosa ________.
D) contains the lamina propria
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
D) lamina propria
The plicae circulares and intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary
The structures that produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine are the ________.
C) intestinal crypts
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of
the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi
Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
C) serous cells and mucous cells
The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Chyme is created in the ________.
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
B) parietal cells
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or
paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types
synthesize and secrete these products?
A) enteroendocrine cells
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
Peristaltic waves are ________.
D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the
stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
B) protein and peptide fragments
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes
will help to digest the meal?
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite
to form the ________.
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a
specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
C) hydrochloric acid
Hepatocytes do not ________.
A) produce digestive enzymes
Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Chief cells ________.
C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of
The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central
If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
D) canine tooth
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely
________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a
Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.
D) round ligament
The lamina propria is composed of ________.
A) loose connective tissue
________ is/are not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion
Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
C) cystic duct
The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful
enzymes needed for food digestion
Under normal conditions, the gastric mucosa pours out as much as ________.
C) 2 to 3 liters of gastric juice per day
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
A) fungiform and circumvallate
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) parietal cells
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol,
emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply
of elastic fibers is the ________.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
C) is longer than the small intestine
Tooth structure includes ________.
C) a thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in place
The propulsion of food down the gastrointestinal tract includes ________.
A) the pharyngeal-esophageal phase, an involuntary process
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth
Paneth cells ________.
C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
Select the correct statement about absorption.
C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may
Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the
following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
A) the pancreas
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.
A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On
examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the
duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the babyʹs loss of gastric juice,
his blood probably indicates ________.
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
B) inferior vena cava
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
D) nitric oxide
There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________
antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing