Sociology Exam 3 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following statements is true regarding global stratification?

Global stratification is a hierarchy of countries on the basis of wealth.

2

Which of these statements related to global stratification is true?

The majority of the world's population lives in poor countries.

3

How is environmental degradation related to global stratification?

The type of environmental degradation and its impact depends on the location of the country in the global stratification system.

4

According to the text, global stratification

Has contributed to political instability and the threat of terrorism.

5

According to the text, global stratification contributes to the threat of terrorism, particularly against the U.S.
Which of the following is not one of the reasons why this is the case?

Religious extremists do not recognize the economic dependency of poor countries on wealthy countries.

6

Walter is part of the richest 20 percent of the world's population. This group controls of world income.

82.8

7

A comparison of the world's richest and poorest countries reveals that the poorest countries tend to be/have all
of the following, except:

have a socialist government.

8

Compared with other countries, the populations of the world's richest countries are

getting smaller

9

Countries that are partly industrialized but extract profits from poor countries to pass on to core countries are called .

semi-peripheral countries

10

According to world systems theory, poverty is the result of

core nations extracting labor and resources from peripheral nations

11

Using power as a dimension, the countries of the world can be divided economically into three levels. Those with the most power are the .

Core countries

12

Using power as a dimension, the countries of the world can be stratified on three levels. The countries that comprise a kind of middle class in this stratification system are the .

semi-peripheral countries

13

Using power as a basis of stratification, those that control and profit most from the world system are the .

Core countries

14

The belief that poverty is the result of core nations extracting labor and natural resources from peripheral nations is central to .

World systems theory

15

Which of these statements about the world economic system is true?

Low-wage sweat shops are found in all countries.

16

The countries are typically poor and largely agricultural.

peripheral countries

17

According to modernization theory,

social change involves increasing complexity, differentiation, and efficiency.

18

According to modernization theory, some countries are poor because:

They have traditional values

19

According to modernization theory

Economic development is dependent on technological change

20

Modernization theorists argue that developing countries benefit greatly when they

Let the natural forces of competition determine which individuals become successful and which do not.

21

According to , poverty results from adherence to traditional values and customs.

modernization theory

22

conceptually, modernization theory is an outgrowth of theory

functionalist

23

According to theory, countries remain poor when traditional customs and kin relations discourage individual achievement.

Modernization

24

Modernization derives some of its thinking from the work of who argued that the value of individual achievement emphasized by protestants promoted economic development during the industrial revolution.

Max Weber

25

while it does not apply in every case, modernization theory does help explain how became successful though an emphasis on a national work ethic.

Japan

26

Which of these is not a criticism of modernization theory presented in the text?

It places too great an emphasis on the role of government in influencing economic development

27

According to , poverty results from the dependence of low-income countries on wealthy nations.

Dependency theory

28

theory explains global inequality using the characteristics of individual nations; theory argues no country or set of countries may be understood in isolation from the others.

Modernization / world systems

29

A student examining dependency theory is interested in documenting which of the following?

Neocolonialism

30

According to dependency theorists, multinational corporations

play an active role in keeping dependent nations poor.

31

Critics of dependency theory note all of the following, except:

some nations have fought against colonialism.

32

According to dependency theory, under colonialism European powers

kept colonies underdeveloped to avoid competition from them.

33

According to dependency theory, today's global system of inequality originated

in the 1600s as European countries began to industrialize.

34

According to , social change leads to an international division of labor that benefits the few who receive profits, while exploiting those in the poorest and least powerful nations.

world systems theory

35

Neocolonialism, the continued control of low-income countries by wealthier nations, is maintained primarily through

The indebtedness of the poorer countries to wealthier nations.

36

The control of poor countries by rich countries without the use of direct political or military involvement is referred to as.

neocolonialism

37

Colonization ended soon after .

world war II

38

According to , social change leads to an international division of labor that benefits the few who receive profits, while exploiting those in the poorest and least powerful nations.

kept underdeveloped so that they would not compete with the home country.

39

A new addition to World Systems Theory is a focus on which explains how differential profits are attached to the production of goods and services in the world market.

the new international division of labor

40

Within world systems theory, the term for the network of production and labor processes by which a product becomes a finished commodity is .

commodity chain

41

Which of these is not a criticism of world systems theory?

The world is no longer a set of economic interconnections between nations.

42

John lives and works in Mississippi. He is part of a commodity chain because

he is part of global production and labor process connecting him with other regions of the world

43

Which of the following is the measure used to address women's development status by sociology of development theorists?

gender inequality index

44

Within world systems theory, the term for the network of production and labor processes by which a product becomes a finished commodity is.

commodity chain

45

The historical process in any society by which a group comes to be defined as a race is called .

racial formation

46

Which of the following reflects the effects of population growth on development?

Population growth leads to economic stagnation

47

Which of these statements best describes the relationship between population growth and economic development?

The cases of China, India, and the U.S. indicate that high birth rates do not necessarily prevent development.

48

Which of the following is false?

High fertility rates are no longer a major factor in the context of poverty.

49

The refers to the number of live births a woman will have over her lifetime at the current rate in her country.

Total fertility rate

50

Most scholars of international development believe

that fertility levels are affected by levels of industrialization

51

The United States is responsible for approximately of the global energy use.

one fourth 1/4

52

Which of the following is a disadvantage of the informal education system in many poor nations?

It does not prepare students for the modern world.

53

Which of the following statements regarding education and literacy is false?

In most nations throughout the world elementary school is mandatory.

54

Double deprivation refers to

women bearing a larger share of global poverty than men.

55

Per capita GNI is only a reliable measure when used for countries that

are based on a cash economy.

56

Which of the following is true about using annual per capita gross national income (per capita GNI) to measure the wealth of nations?

Per capita GNI reflects each person's share of their country's production, not wages or pay.

57

The majority of the wealthy countries, as measured by the GNI in 2007 were in:

Western europe

58

The majority of the poorest nations, as measured by the GNI in 2007 were in:

Africa

59

A social category of people who share a common culture (i.e., language, national background or religion) is referred to as a(n) .

ethnic group

60

In order for a group to be considered an ethnic group they must

. share an identity they see as different from that of others in society

61

Jokes that use humor to stereotype a group as stupid or inept are often repeated substituting different ethnic groups. This is an example of the concept of .

stereotype

62

Racial groups are defined by:

How the groups have been treated historically.

63

Sociologists find that racism

is the perception and treatment of members of a racial group as inferior.

64

Sociologists refer to the process by which something or someone is perceived as having racial characteristics as

racialization

65

Which of these statements regarding race is true?

Race is a socially constructed category.

66

How does the concept of race differ between Brazil and the U.S.?

In the U.S. a person with any amount of Black ancestry has historically been designated as Black; this has not been the case in Brazil.

67

What is the current practice of the U.S. Census for reporting one's race?

A person may select as many racial categories as they feel applies to them.

68

What is the most important factor for determining the racial categories within any society?

The beliefs and interests of the most powerful group(s) in society.

69

The historical process in any society by which a group comes to be defined as a race is called .

racial formation

70

The process of racial formation is supported by:

social institutions.

71

Which of these is an illustration of the concept of out-group homogeneity?

Members of a set of minority groups, such as Laotians, Chinese, Japanese, and Indonesians, are perceived as being similar enough to share a general category (Asian).

72

Which of the following does not apply to all minority groups?

being smaller in number than the dominant group

73

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a racial or ethnic minority group?

Group members share common beliefs.

74

Research on discrimination in housing has found that

members of minority groups are frequently turned down for housing in situations in which a White person is not.

75

Which of these statements about economic inequality is true?

The gap between the income of Whites and the income of Blacks and Hispanics has remained unchanged since 1967.

76

Measurements of economic inequality indicate that

the poverty rate is higher for Blacks and Hispanics than it is for Whites and Asians.

77

is the psychological theory that argues that members of the dominant group vent their frustrations and aggressions toward minority groups instead of the real source of their frustration.

Scapegoat theory

78

The assimilation perspective argues that in order to be full members of society members of minority groups must adopt as many aspects of the dominant culture as possible. This perspective pertains to which type of sociological theory?

functionalist theory

79

Contact theory argues that under certain conditions interactions between Whites and members of minority groups will reduce prejudice within both groups. This theory is a type

symbolic interactionist

80

The perspective that argues that minority groups' life chances result from the opportunities formed by the
interactions of class, race, and gender is called .

the intersection perspective

81

Stereotypes are

oversimplified statements of belief about members of a particular group

82

When it comes to gender stereotypes,

stereotypes about women are more negative than those about men.

83

The principle of holds that stereotypes, especially negative ones, are often applied interchangeable from one group to another.

stereotype interchangeability

84

Jokes that use humor to stereotype a group as stupid or inept are often repeated substituting different ethnic groups. This is an example of the concept of .

stereotype interchangeability

85

A traditional stereotype of African Americans is that they are inherently lazy. This stereotype has also been applied to Hispanics, Polish, and Irish groups. This is an example of

the principle of stereotype interchangeability

86

Prejudice is

usually negative.

87

is the evaluation of a social group based on misconceptions about the group.

Prejudice

88

A prejudiced person is likely to have:

positive attitudes towards members of an in-group and negative attitudes toward members of an out- group.

89

How do strongly prejudiced people end up that way?

Socialization into prejudiced attitudes occurs in the family, as well as through the media and peers.

90

Research on socialization into prejudiced attitudes indicates that

there is a close correlation between the racial and ethnic attitudes of parents and those of their children.

91

While prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is

overt behavior

92

According to a fairly old psychological theory of prejudice and racism, the tendency to rigidly categorize other people, to rigidly conform, and be intolerant of ambiguity is part of a(n) .

authoritarian personality

93

Contact theory argues that under certain conditions interactions between Whites and members of minority groups will reduce prejudice within both groups. This theory is a type of theory.

symbolic interactionist

94

Contact theory argues that interaction between Whites and minorities will reduce prejudice on the part of both groups if all of the following conditions are met, except:

all parties agree to work to reduce the prejudice.

95

In general, are likely to attribute poverty and lower class status to individual disposition or personality, while are more likely to attribute the cause of poverty to discrimination and lack of opportunity.

middle-class people; lower-income people

96

While prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is

overt behavior

97

Which of the following is the best example of institutional discrimination?

Airport security procedures that specify people who appear to be Middle Eastern should be scrutinized more closely than others.

98

Sociologists find that racism

is the perception and treatment of members of a racial group as inferior.

99

According to the text, there are different forms of racism. Overt, obvious racism, such as physical violence or the use of racial slurs is termed.

old-fashioned racism

100

Consistently avoiding contact with people of different races than one's own would be considered an example of

aversive racism

101

Which of the following is not an element of laissez-faire racism?

an inability to understand non-racist viewpoints

102

Holding the belief that one does not notice racial differences, and that discussing race only perpetuates racism, would be considered .

color-blind racism

103

Blaming Blacks for economic inequality and resistance to policies that might alleviate racial oppression is considered .

symbolic or laissez-faire racism

104

If an administrator engages in institutional racism he or she is is able to apply which of the following?

power

105

Educational tracking and racial profiling are both examples of .

institutional racism

106

According to a fairly old psychological theory of prejudice and racism, the tendency to rigidly categorize other people, to rigidly conform, and be intolerant of ambiguity is part of a(n) .

authoritarian personality

107

The process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant society is called .

assimilation

108

Persons with the perspective believe that to overcome adversity and oppression, the minority person needs to imitate the dominant White culture as much as possible.

assimilation

109

A problem with the assimilation model of analysis of group relationships is that it

takes no account of the time that it takes certain groups to assimilate.

110

Which of these is not a criticism of the assimilation model?

It does not account for language barriers between groups.

111

The Black power movement of the late 1960s

all of the above

112

Central to the operation of slavery was the belief that:

Human beings could be property.

113

Which of these statements regarding the slavery system and the position of African Americans in the U.S. is
true?

Pieces of the slavery system remain in the U.S. today.

114

A problem with the terms "Latino" and "Latina" is that they

do not reflect the diversity of groups who are included in the category.

115

Which of the following is not considered a Latino group?

Hawaiians

116

A Latino family lives in a neighborhood with only other Latino families. This is referred to as .

Hypersegregation

117

A college graduate examines her income and wealth in relation to others. She is interested in

Social stratification

118

A relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth is called .

social stratification

119

refers to the process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society.

Social differentiation

120

What is the difference between stratification and differentiation?

Differentiation is not necessarily unequal, but stratification is.

121

Which of the following is not one of the groups within a feudal system?

doctors

122

The feudal societies of Europe in the Middle Ages are an example of a(n) system of stratification

estate

123

In a caste system, one's place in the stratification system is a(n) status.

ascribed

124

What type of system did black workers experience during South Africa's period of Apartheid?

caste

125

In a caste system, one's place in the stratification system is an statusÍž in a class system, one's place in the
stratification system is an status.

ascribed, achieved

126

Class systems differ from caste systems in that one's status in a class system may be , to some extentÍž
while in a caste system it is not.

achieved

127

The position one holds in relation to the economic, political, social and cultural resources in a society is called
one's.

social class

128

Which of the following is false regarding social class?

It is not possible for people to change whatever social class they are born into.

129

People at a party are comparing clothing, automobiles, and personal possessions. They are comparing elements of

Social class

130

Which of these statements about social class is false?

Social class is personal and individual, not social structural.

131

What do sociologists use to measure social class?

all of these

132

Which of these statements is the best description of social class in the United States?

The U.S. system is elaborate; it could be depicted by a ladder with a different social class at each rung.

133

The Smiths compare their wealth, income, and lifestyle to others in their neighborhood. Which of the following are they comparing?

Life chances

134

John shows off his new car and clothes to other students. He is exhibiting an example of .

conspicuous consumption

135

What do sociologists use to measure social class?

all of them

136

In the United States

most people live their entire lives as members of a social class very close to the one they were born into.

137

The Bakers are part of the upper class. Which of the following scenarios are they most likely to fit?

None of the above.

138

The Parkers are in the upper class and earned all their wealth in the last year from a very successful business.
The Parkers are consider

nouveau riche

139

Which of the following does not represent a reason why "middle class" is difficult to define?

The middle class is a very large and diverse group.

140

The urban underclass differs from others among the lower class in a number of ways. Which of the following is
not one of these reasons?

The urban underclass consists of mostly recent immigrants.

141

According to William Julius Wilson, the "underclass" is

the result of structural transformations in the economy.

142

Sociologists who analyze class using a conflict perspective

see class as defined by the relationship of the classes to the larger system of economic production.

143

The sociological perspective that defines classes in terms of their structural relationship to other classes and their relationship to the economic system is the .

conflict perspective

144

According to Marxian conflict theory, as capitalism progresses

many of those in the middle class will drop into the working class as they are pushed out of managerial jobs into working class jobs.

145

While Marx predicted a specific set of events, which of the following actually occurred?

The middle class remains fragile while the upper and lower classes grow.

146

Which of the following is false regarding social class in the United States?

Tax policies favor the middle and lower classes.

147

The most important predictor of Bobby's class location is .

his wealth

148

Class inequality in the United States have been growing due to all of the following, except

Americans have unrealistic expectations of wealth.

149

The Black middle class

continues to experience segregation.

150

Regarding race and class, which of the following is true?

Blacks have less wealth than whites, Asians, and Latinos.

151

In recent years, both the African American and Latino middle class have expanded because of

Increased access to education and middle-class occupations for people of color.

152

In regards to the intersection of race and class, Black Americans

Are more likely to be working class than are whites.

153

Measured by their average education and income levels, most women would be considered

working class

154

Which of the following is true about the effects of gender on stratification?

The median income for women is far below the national median income level.

155

Which of the following is an example of intergenerational mobility?

A daughter rises above the class of her parents.

156

The perception that a class structure exists and the feeling of shared identification with others in one's class is
referred to as .

class consciousness

157

Which of these statements about class consciousness in the U.S. is false?

Despite the absence of class consciousness, most Americans are aware that there is little upward social mobility.