APUSH Chapter 34 Flashcards


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1

Franklin Roosevelt undermined the London Economic Conference because
a.
its members insisted on rigid adherence to the gold standard.
b.
any agreement to stabilize national currencies might hurt America's recovery from depression.
c.
such an agreement would involve the United States militarily with the League of Nations.
d.
the delegates refused to work on reviving international trade.
e.
it was dominated by British and Swiss bankers.

B

2

As a result of Franklin Roosevelt's withdrawal from the London Economic Conference
a.
inflation in the United States was reduced.
b.
the United States was voted out of the League of Nations.
c.
tensions rose between the United States and Britain.
d.
the United States began to pull out of the Depression.
e.
the trend toward extreme nationalism was strengthened.

E

3

One internationalist action by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first term in office was
a.
the formal recognition of the Soviet Union.
b.
joining the League of Nations.
c.
establishing military bases in China.
d.
his support of the Tydings-McDuffie Act.
e.
his commitment to Philippine independence.

A

4

Roosevelt's recognition of the Soviet Union was undertaken partly
a.
in order to win support from American Catholics.
b.
because the Soviet leadership seemed to be modifying its harsher communist policies.
c.
in hope of developing a diplomatic counterweight to the rising power of Japan and Germany.
d.
to win favor with American liberals and leftists.
e.
to open opportunities for American investment in Siberian oil fields.

C

5

In promising to grant the Philippines independence, the United States was motivated by
a.
treaty obligations.
b.
doubts about the islands' potential profitability.
c.
the view that the islands were militarily indefensible.
d.
the realization that the islands were economic liabilities.
e.
regrets over their imperialistic takeover in 1898.

D

6

Franklin Roosevelt embarked on the Good Neighbor policy in part because
a.
there was a rising tide of anti-Americanism in Latin America.
b.
Congress had repealed the Monroe Doctrine.
c.
he feared the spread of communism in the region.
d.
the policy was part of the neutrality stance taken by the United States.
e.
he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere against dictators.

E

7

As part of his Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America, President Roosevelt developed more generous policies of
a.
encouraging Mexican immigration into the United States
b.
removing American controls on Haiti, Cuba, and Panama.
c.
supporting Latin American strongmen in Argentina and Brazil.
d.
returning the Guantanamo naval base to Cuban control.
e.
moving Puerto Rico toward its independence.

B

8

The net effect of most of Franklin Roosevelt's early foreign policy moves was that
a.
the United States was developing a strong defense perimeter across the northern Atlantic Ocean.
b.
the United States was willing to accommodate Stalin's Soviet Union but not Hitler's Germany.
c.
the United States was tilting toward engagement with undeveloped nations rather than with the Western world.
d.
the United States was giving up ambitions to be a world power and concentrating on the Western hemisphere.
e.
Americans would be economically but not diplomatically engaged with the rest of the world.

D

9

The 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
a.
raised America's tariff schedule.
b.
inhibited President Roosevelt's efforts to implement his Good Neighbor policy.
c.
increased America's foreign trade.
d.
was most strongly opposed in the South and West.
e.
was aimed at isolating Italy and Germany.

C

10

President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign-trade policy
a.
lowered tariffs to increase trade.
b.
encouraged trade only with Latin America.
c.
continued the policy that had persisted since the Civil War.
d.
was reversed only after World War II.
e.
sought protection for key U.S. industries.

A

11

Throughout most of the 1930s, the American people responded to the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, and Japan by
a.
assisting their victims with military aid.
b.
giving only economic help to the targets of aggression.
c.
beginning to build up their military forces.
d.
demanding an oil embargo on all warring nations.
e.
retreating further into isolationism.

E

12

Fascist aggression in the 1930s included Mussolini's invasion of ____, Hitler's invasion of ____, and Franco's overthrow of the republican government of ____.
a.
Egypt; France; Poland
b.
Albania; Italy; Austria
c.
Ethiopia; Czechoslovakia; Spain
d.
Belgium; the Soviet Union; France
e.
Ethiopia; Norway; Portugal

C

13

By the mid-1930s, there was strong nationwide agitation for a constitutional amendment to
a.
increase the size of the Supreme Court.
b.
limit a president to two terms.
c.
ban arm sales to foreign nations.
d.
require the president to gain Congressional approval before sending U.S. troops overseas.
e.
forbid a declaration of war by Congress unless first approved by a popular referendum.

E

14

Passage of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 by the United States resulted in all of the following except
a.
abandonment of the traditional policy of freedom of the seas.
b.
a decline in the navy and other armed forces.
c.
making no distinction between aggressors and victims.
d.
spurring aggressors along their path of conquest.
e.
balancing the scales between dictators and U.S. allies by trading with neither.

E

15

Americans' fervent isolationism in the 1930s can best be attributed to
a.
their regrets about participating in WWI.
b.
bitter memories of the ungrateful nations that defaulted on their WWI debts.
c.
the totalizing impact of the Great Depression and the need to focus on getting out of it.
d.
None of these
e.
All of these

E

16

From 1925 to 1940, the transition of American policy on arms sales to warring nations followed this sequence
a.
embargo to lend-lease to cash-and-carry.
b.
cash-and-carry to lend-lease to embargo.
c.
lend-lease to cash-and-carry to embargo.
d.
embargo to cash-and-carry to lend-lease.
e.
lend-lease to embargo to cash-and-carry.

D

17

America's neutrality policy during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 did nothing to prevent
a.
Hitler from conquering Spain.
b.
the Loyalists from winning the war.
c.
Roosevelt and Francisco Franco from becoming personal friends.
d.
the Soviets from successfully defending the Spanish Republic.
e.
Spain from becoming a fascist dictatorship after Franco's victory.

E

18

Americans reacted to Franco's efforts to stage a coup in Spain by
a.
supporting Franco and his rebels.
b.
recruiting thousands of men and women as volunteers to fight Franco in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade.
c.
pushing the US government to send arms and aid.
d.
urging that the US end its neutrality.
e.
None of these

B

19

Franklin Roosevelt's sensational Quarantine Speech in 1937 resulted in
a.
a belief in Europe that America would stop fascist aggression.
b.
a wave of protest by isolationists.
c.
support from both Democratic and Republican leaders.
d.
a slowing of Japanese aggression in China.
e.
a modification of the Neutrality Acts.

B

20

In September 1938 in Munich, Germany,
a.
Britain and France consented to Germany's taking the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
b.
Hitler declared his intention to take Austria.
c.
Hitler signed the Axis Alliance Treaty with Japan.
d.
Britain and France acquiesced to the German reoccupation of the Rhineland.
e.
Britain and France declared that an invasion of Poland would mean war.

A

21

Shortly after Adolf Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union
a.
Britain and France signed a similar agreement.
b.
the Soviets attacked China.
c.
Germany invaded Poland and started World War II.
d.
Italy signed a similar agreement with the Soviets.
e.
the Germans invaded Finland.

C

22

Which of the following nations was not conquered by Hitler's Germany between September 1939 and June 1940?
a.
Norway
b.
The Netherlands
c.
France
d.
Poland
e.
Finland

E

23

The event that shook Americans to the core and moved them to make an enormous effort against Hitler's aggression in Europe was
a.
the fall of France.
b.
Hitler's moves on England.
c.
Germany's nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union.
d.
the invasion of Poland.
e.
the fear of a union between Japan and Germany.

A

24

The era of informal polling techniques came to an end and was replaced by more scientifically based systems
a.
in the 1940 presidential election.
b.
after a magazine in 1936 mistakenly predicted Alf Landon the winner over FDR.
c.
when television began to play an increasingly important role in forecasting elections.
d.
when advertisers decided that polling was useless for the purposes of marketing.
e.
None of these

B

25

Efforts to bring large numbers of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany to the United States were largely blocked by
a.
restrictive immigration laws and opposition from southern Democrats and the State Department.
b.
internal tensions between German-Jewish and eastern European Jewish communities in the United States.
c.
pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic organizations within the United States.
d.
the inability to find sufficient passenger ships to bring refugees across the Atlantic to the United States.
e.
Zionist organizations that wanted to steer Jewish immigration to Israel, not the United States.

A

26

During the 1930s, the United States admitted ____ Jewish refugees from Nazism.
a.
about one million
b.
almost no
c.
nearly six million
d.
about 150,000
e.
only a handful of highly educated

D

27

One of the few successful wartime American efforts to save Jews from perishing in the Holocaust came when
a.
Americans helped some German and Austrian Jews seek refuge in neutral Sweden and Switzerland.
b.
American Zionist organizations helped Romanian Jews escape to Israel.
c.
the U.S. Air Force bombed the rail lines leading to Auschwitz.
d.
American agents enabled French Jews to escape across the Pyrenees into Spain.
e.
Franklin Roosevelt's War Refugee Board helped some Hungarian Jews escape.

E

28

Congress's first response to the unexpected fall of France in 1940 was to
a.
revoke all the neutrality laws.
b.
expand naval patrols in the Atlantic.
c.
enact a new neutrality law enabling the Allies to buy American war materials on a cash-and-carry basis.
d.
call for the quarantining of aggressor nations.
e.
pass a conscription law.

E

29

America's attempt to remain neutral in the war between the Axis powers and the Allies came to an end when
a.
Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
b.
Germany attacked Poland.
c.
the conscription law was passed in 1940.
d.
France fell to Germany.
e.
Italy "stabbed France in the back."

D

30

In 1940, in exchange for American destroyers, the British gave the United States
a.
"most favored nation" status.
b.
a role in developing the atomic bomb.
c.
eight valuable naval bases in the Western hemisphere.
d.
access to German military codes.
e.
six air bases in Scotland and Iceland.

C

31

By 1940, a strong majority of American public opinion had come to favor
a.
the America First position.
b.
active participation in the war.
c.
permitting U.S. volunteers to fight in Britain.
d.
shipping Britain everything except military weapons.
e.
providing Britain with "all aid short of war."

E

32

The surprise Republican presidential nominee in 1940 was
a.
Wendell L. Willkie.
b.
Robert A. Taft.
c.
Thomas E. Dewey.
d.
Alfred E. Landon.
e.
Charles A. Lindbergh.

A

33

Franklin Roosevelt was motivated to run for a third term in 1940 mainly by his
a.
personal desire to defeat his old political rival, Wendell Willkie.
b.
belief that America needed his experienced leadership during the international crisis.
c.
mania for power.
d.
opposition to Willkie's pledge to restore a strict policy of American neutrality.
e.
belief that the two-term tradition limited democratic choice.

B

34

The 1941 lend-lease program was all of the following except
a.
a focus of intense debate between internationalists and isolationists.
b.
a direct challenge to the Axis dictators.
c.
the point when all pretense of American neutrality was abandoned.
d.
the catalyst that caused American factories to prepare for all-out war production.
e.
another privately arranged executive deal, like the destroyers-for-bases trade

E

35

When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the United States
a.
promised aid to the Soviets but did not deliver.
b.
refused to provide any help, either military or economic.
c.
gave only nonmilitary aid to Russia.
d.
made lend-lease aid available to the Soviets.
e.
sent U.S. ships to Soviet naval bases.

D

36

In 1940, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Willkie avoided deepening the sharp divisions among the American people when he
a.
avoided attacking the New Deal.
b.
refused to raise the racial issue.
c.
declined to criticize Roosevelt for seeking a third term.
d.
avoided attacking the draft.
e.
avoided attacking Roosevelt for his increasingly interventionist policies.

E

37

Those opposed to the Lend-Lease program, such as members of Massachusetts' Woman's Political Club, feared that
a.
the lending countries would default on their debt.
b.
it was in violation of America's strict neutrality.
c.
it would eventually draw the nation into the war itself.
d.
All of these
e.
None of these

C

38

After the Greer was fired upon, the Kearny crippled, and the Reuben James sunk
a.
Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act.
b.
the United States Navy began escorting merchant vessels carrying lend-lease shipments.
c.
Congress allowed the arming of United States merchant vessels.
d.
Congress forbade United States ships to enter combat zones.
e.
Roosevelt told the public that war was imminent.

C

39

By 1941, Japan believed that it had no alternative to war with the United States because Franklin Roosevelt absolutely insisted that Japan
a.
withdraw from the Dutch East Indies.
b.
withdraw from China.
c.
renew its trade with America.
d.
break its treaty of nonaggression with Germany.
e.
stop attempting to become a dominant Pacific naval power.

B

40

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as a great surprise because
a.
President Roosevelt suspected that if an attack came, it would be in Malaysia or the Philippines.
b.
no American officials suspected that Japan might start a war with the United States.
c.
Japanese communications were in a secret code unknown to the United States.
d.
the United States was, at the time, Japan's main source of oil and steel.
e.
it was believed that Japan had insufficient aircraft carriers to reach Hawaii.

A

41

On the eve of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, a large majority of Americans
a.
were beginning to question the increased aid given to Britain.
b.
still wanted to keep the United States out of war.
c.
accepted the idea that America would enter the war.
d.
did not oppose Japan's conquests in East Asia.
e.
were ready to fight Germany but not Japan.

B

42

Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Munich Conference, (B) German invasion of Poland, and (C) Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty.
a.
A, C, B
b.
B, C, A
c.
C, B, A
d.
C, A, B
e.
A, B, C

A

43

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fall of France, (B) Atlantic Conference, and (C) Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union.
a.
B, A, C
b.
A, B, C
c.
C, B, A
d.
A, C, B
e.
C, A, B

D

44

As part of his plan to concentrate on alleviating the Depression at home, President Roosevelt's administration
a.
cooperated closely with other nations in the London Economic Conference.
b.
extended formal diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union.
c.
abandoned the interventionist policy toward Latin America.
d.
promised independence to the Philippines.
e.
sought closer ties with Canada and Mexico.

B, C, D

45

In the 1940 presidential election campaign, both President Roosevelt and the Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie, agreed that the
a.
United States should supply military aid to Britain and the Allies.
b.
United States should actively find a way to enter the war.
c.
United States should strengthen its defenses.
d.
New Deal should be abandoned.
e.
U.S. military should directly aid China.

A, C

46

Among the principles of the Atlantic Charter signed by President Roosevelt and British prime minister Churchill were
a.
national self-determination.
b.
disarmament.
c.
neutrality.
d.
collective security.
e.
the creation of a new international organization.

A, B, D, E