Biomed: Systems and Skills Flashcards


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1

4 basic categories of disease

congenital

infectious

inherited

degenerative

2

congenital disease

disease you are born with (defect)

3

infectious disease

disease caused by a microorganism

4

inherited disease

a genetic disorder

5

degenerative disease

disease that occurs over time due to environmental factors (smoking, age, obesity, etc)

6

Elements of a disease

etiology

diagnosis

prognosis

symptoms

treatment

7

etiology

cause of a disease

8

diagnosis

the identification of a disease based on symptoms, tests, observations and history

9

symptoms

signs indicating an illness

10

treatment

medication or therapies used to alleviate symptoms and disease

11

prognosis

predicted outcome of having the illness

12

Main organs of the Cardiovascular System

heart

arteries

veins

capillaries

arterioles

venules

blood

13

Main organs of the Respiratory system

nose, nasal cavity, mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, diaphragm

14

Parts of the stethescope

bell: low pitched sounds

diaphragm: high pitched sounds

tubing

ear piece

15

Tools to asses cardiovascular system

EKG

auscultation

heart rate

blood pressure

16

systole

contraction

17

diastole

relaxation

18

Lubb sound of the heart

closing of the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral)

19

Dupp sound of the heart

closing of the semilunar valves (pulmonic valve, aortic valve)

20

What stimulates the heart to contract?

sinoatrial node (pacemaker)

21

What does SOAP stand for?

S-subjective (what the patient tells you)

O-objective ( doctor observations, tests)

A-assessment (diagnosis)

P-plan (what is the treatment and prognosis)

22

Two main cavities in the body

Dorsal (in the back, holds the cranial and spinal cavities)

Ventral (in the front of the body, holds the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities)

23

Which cavity holds the heart and lungs?

the thoracic cavity

24

3 stages of respiration

external respiration

internal respiration

cellular respiration

25

the stages of breathing (ventilation)

inspiration

expiration

26

hypertention

high blood pressure (bp over 130/80)

27

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

28

emphysema

occurs when the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity

29

epistaxis

nose bleed

30

tachycardia

rapid heart rate

31

mitral valve stenosis

narrowing of the bicuspid or mitral valve

32

4 major techniques of the physical exam

auscultation: listening to the sounds of heart, lungs, abdomen

palpation: feeling of the body

percussion: tapping parts of the body

observation: looking and perceiving

33

horizontal recumbent (supine)

laying on one's back

examination of the front of the body

34

prone

lying on the stomach

examination of the back

35

Fowler's position

sitting at a 45 degree angle

aids in breathing

reduces distress

36

Trendelenberg position

head is lower than the feet

increase circulation to the head

37

BMI

body mass index

normal 18.5-24.9

weight in kg/height in m2

indicates if the weight is normal, underweight or overweight

38

Tools to check vision

Snellen Chart

Ishihara test: color blindness

Jaeger system:

39

S1 sound

lubb sound (closing of AV valves)

listen to the apex of the heart area (T,M)

40

S2 sound

dupp sound (closing of semilunar valves)

listen to the base of the heart area (A and P)

41

Irregular sounds

S3, S4, murmur

42

Lung auscultation

Anterior: upper lobes of lungs

Posterior: lower lobes of lungs

Listen for inspiration/expiration, pitch, quality, character (wheezing, ronchi, rales, etc)

43

bowel auscultation

listening for sounds of working intestines

hypoactive: slow to no sounds (slow movement, sleep, medicine)

hyperactive: lots of sounds (gas, diarrhea, after eating)