Biol 1080 exam 5 Flashcards


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1

How are coral reefs similar to tropical rain forests?

The basic physical structure of both communities is produced by organisms. Giant trees of rain forests and reef-building corals create a 3-dimensional framework that supports a vast assortment of organisms

2

Describe how coral reefs are built

Corals are built by polyps producing calcium carbonate skeletons.

3

What organisms are the primary builders?

The primary builders are the reef-building corals themselves.

4

hermatypic coral

Zooxanthellae, Reef builders, colonial, shallow, tropical seas

5

Ahermatypic coral

Non-reef building, Not limited to shallow or warm water, Some in polar seas

6

Describe the structure of a coral reef

Layers of cup-like skeleton of calcium carbonate as coral polyps lie in layers. This builds up the skeleton to grow upward and outward. It can take on many shapes as well

7

Describe how corals nourish themselves

By performing photosynthesis and passing the organic matter they make onto the coral. They also use their tentacles, mucus or mesentrial filaments

8

What role do zooxanthellae play

provide nutrients to their host

9

coralline algae

Algae that deposits good amounts of carbonate and binds/stabilizes the reef.

10

coralline algae their role in a coral reef

They are considered the 'glue' of the coral reefs

11

primary contributors to biogenous sediment in a coral reef

sea urchins, bryozoans, crustaceans, sponges and bacteria

12

conditions needed for coral reef growth

Coral reefs must be in shallow water, so there is light for the zooxanthellae to penetrate. The water must be clear and the average water temperature must be above 20 degrees Celsius (or 68 Fahrenheit)

13

coral bleaching

coral ends up expelling its zooxanthellae and most of its mucus

14

Why does coral bleaching occur

Rising water temperatures, Ocean acidification, Pollution/oil spills/shipping accidents, Overfishing, Natural disasters, Predation, Coral mining, Sunscreen/tourism

15

Describe the relationship between El NiƱo events and coral bleaching

When El Nino occurs, it warms the waters to a high temperature, thus resulting in coral bleaching. It results in a lot of reefs either quickly recovering, slowly recovering or dying.

16

eutrophication

is accelerated algal growth due to nutrient input. This causes algal to overgrow and smother corals

17

3 kinds of coral reefs

Fringing Reefs, Barrier Reefs, Atolls

18

Fringing Reefs

Most simple/common. Develop along the shore. Grows in a narrow band or fringe along the shore

19

Barrier Reefs

Lie along the coast, but further from the shore. In some cases, can be a complex system of smaller reefs

20

Atolls

A ring of reef/sand keys surrounding a central lagoon

21

reef flat

widest part of the reef

22

reef slope

steep, vertical part of the reef with the deepest cover

23

lagoon

water separated from the shore

24

sand keys

sand island

25

spur and grove formations

exposed fore-reef areas with a series series of finger-like projection alternating with sand channels

26

the theory of atoll formation developed by Charles Darwin

Atolls are formed by reef growth on a subsiding island, starting when a deep sea volcano erupts to form a island/seamount. Then, corals colonize the shores

27

trophic structure of a coral reef

There is a mutualistic relationship between the corals and zooxanthellae

28

defensive mechanisms of corals used to compete for space

can grow upward and branch out cutting off light from neighbors, some attack their neighbors, digest away tissue of another coral, can sting neighbor colonies with sweeper tentacles

29

epipelagic

Photic zone, 500 ft

30

Mesopelagic

the surface layer or sunlight layer, wide range of life

31

Deep Sea

a deep body of water with organisms adapted to cold, darkness, and very high water pressure

32

photic zone

Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate

33

What do all of the habitats below the photic zone have in common?

life is much less abundant because of the lack of food that sinks below this zone

34

how oxygen is replenished in the deep sea

thermohaline circulation and the great ocean conveyor constantly replenish the supply of ocean to the deep sea

35

main thermocline

the zone where the temperature change marks the transition between the warm surface water and the cold deep water

36

Where is the main thermocline located?

mesopelagic layer

37

common adaptations do many animals in the mesopelagic zone possess

light organs that produce light

38

vertical migrators

swim bladder, well developed bones, well developed muscles

39

non migrators in mesopelagic

adapted to conserve energy, most have lost swim bladder, soft weak bones, lost spines and scales, neutrally buoyant

40

tubular eyes

Specialized eyes of many midwater animals that allow acute upward or downward vision

41

adaptations of mesopelagic species

countershading, black backs and silvery sides, laterally compressed bodies, uses bioluminescence to blend in with background light

42

counterillumination

The emission of light by midwater animals to match the background light

43

deep sea pelagic fish

drab gray or offwhite, fewer photophores, functionally eyes that are small or can be totally blind

44

adaptation for reproduction in deep sea pelagic fish

some become hermaphrodites, can use bioluminescence to attract same species, can release pheromones to attract mate, some bite their mates and attach to them for the rest of their lives

45

what organisms dominate on the deep sea floor

crustaceans

46

trophic structure around hydrothermal vents

seawater enters cracks and fissures in the earths crust and is heated to high temps, then causes black smokers and other mineral deposits, releases energy rich molecules