Psychology 151 Flashcards


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1

Amanda seeks to understand the brain functions underlying mate selection in quail in North America. Amanda is MOST likely a:

Behavioral neuroscientist

2

Doubting one's own conclusions is:

a vital component of critical thinking

3

When walking home alone late one night, you are startled by a moving shadow that you glimpse out of the corner of your eye. The ____ division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes your body's defenses. When you see that shadow is just the neighbor's cat, the ____ division begins to lessen your psychological arousal.

Sympathetic; parasympathetic

4

What is the only way to determine a causal relationship between two variables?

experimentation

5

In the split-brain procedure, the ____ is severed, usually to stop the spread of debilitating seizures.

Corpus Callosum

6

Someone with damage to the hippocampus may:

Not be able to form new memories

7

Amaya believes that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn. This is a theory known a:

Nativism

8

Psychologists work in a wide variety of settings, but the LARGEST percentage work in:

Clinical Settings

9

Random assignment to groups helps ensure that:

Groups do not differ on variables not of interest

10

Isabella is currently experiencing hysteria and reports that she can remember very few events from her traumatic childhood. Freud would suggest that she undergo treatment using:

free association

11

A researcher using naturalistic observation will gather scientific information by:

unobtrusively watching people in their normal environments

12

The amygdala plays a central role in:

emotions and emotional memories

13

John Watson was interested in how ____ behavior and B.F. Skinner focused on how ____ control(s) behavior.

Stimuli Elicit; consequences

14

Samuel believes that his mind is fundamentally different from his brain, a belief consistent with:

Dualism

15

After completing daily football practice. Reginald experiences elevation in mood and reduced aches and pains. He can probably attribute these good feelings to release of ____ in the brain.

...

16

In a neuron, what happens when an action potential reaches the axon terminals of the neuron?

The action potential stimulates the release of chemical messengers.

17

A copper wire is to rubber insulation as a(n) ____ is to a(n) _____

axon; myelin sheath

18

Andy is walking down the street when suddenly a car honks its horn. Andy immediately swings his head in the direction of the sound, primarily as a result of the functioning of his

tectum

19

The functions of which lobe of the cerebral cortex truly set humans apart from other animals?

Frontal

20

Which statement does NOT present an attribute of a good theory?

It can be proven correct

21

The gap between one neuron's axon and a dendrite or cell body of another neuron is the:

synapse

22

Based on the ethical principle of_____, research participants are given enough information about a study to make a reasonable decision about whether to participate.

informed consent

23

Following a stroke, Abby experienced blindness. Where di the stroke MOST likely occur?

Occipital lobe

24

General anesthetics induce unconsciousness by reducing neural activity in the:

medulla

25

In their research, Gestalt psychologists demonstrated that:

the mind imposes organization on what it perceives

26

Which of these is NOT a way neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse?

repackaging into vesicles in the synapse

27

Which research questions would be of MOST interest to social psychologists?

Why do otherwise decent people commit evil acts when ordered to do so by a totalitarian regime?

28

Which of these is NOT an obligation psychologists have when writing reports of their studies and publishing them in academic journals?

sharing credit fairly by including people who contributed to the work as co-authors

29

The statement "Class absences are associated with lower grades" is an example of a(n):

correlation

30

The ___ receive information; the ____ transmit information.

dendrites; axons

31

The ____ was developed in response to the barbaric experiments on human subjects conducted by Nazi doctors in World War 2.

Nuremberg Code

32

The ____ nervous system connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.

peripheral

33

Historians generally credit the emergence of psychologist as a science to:

Wundt

34

Psychologist is the scientific study of

mind and behavior

35

This division of the brain controls the basic functions of life:

Brain Stem

36

Dopamine is an example of a

neurotransmitter

37

In an experiment, the _____ variable is manipulated

independent

38

Correlation does not imply

causal relationships

39

The pituitary gland is the primary gland of the

endocrine system

40

In _____ , trained observers are asked to report on their "raw" sensory experience in response to a stimulus. For example, instead of just saying they see purple, they would be trained to talk about the exact hue of purple and perhaps the luster of shine as well.

introspective

41

After serving in combat. John has strong reactions to mild stimuli that remind of war zone. John is displaying ____ to these stimuli.

sensitization

42

Active maintenance of information in ___ memory is referred to as ___ memory.

short-term; working

43

Which school of psychologist is MOST associated with pioneering research on learning?

behaviorism

44

The Axon of retinal ganglion cell(RGC) joins all other RGC axons to form the:

optic nerve

45

Which sequence of eye parts through which light passes on its way to the brain is correct

Cornea, Pupil, Lens, Retina

46

Which definition BEST describes as a retrieval cue?

External information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind.

47

Sean's best friend, Alex, just dyed her hair purple. Sam is still able to recognize Aliza despite her changed appearances because of:

Perceptual constancy

48

In MOST people, the long-term memory store has:

no known capacity limits

49

As you are about to leave for the grocery store, your roommate asks you to buy chips, apples, and carrots. You must transform that into your memory in order to remember to buy these items at the store, a process known as:

encoding

50

Anthony is given a list of 20 objects to memorize in order. Anthony imagines a walk from home to school and pictures one of the objects on each street corner. Which memory technique is Anthony MOST likely using?

visual memory encoding

51

Combing small pieces of information into larger clusters is known as:

Chunking

52

Which item is a primary reinforcer

A cookie

53

The positive in positive reinforcement and positive punishment indicates that:

a stimulus is presented upon the occurrence of the target behavior.

54

Sultan accidentally slammed his hand in his desk. His roommate suggested that he rub it, a suggestion based on the ____ theory.

gate-control

55

You walk into a store that has a distinct perfume smell. After shopping for 20 minutes, you no longer notice the perfume smell. This is an example of

Sensory adaptation

56

After watching a documentary about the civil rights movement of the 1960s, a researcher asks you to name a famous African American. Due to priming, you are most likely to say:

Martin Luther King Jr.

57

Molly's mail carrier delivers the mail promptly at noon each day. Molly never checks her mailbox in the morning but always checks it at 12:05 p.m. Molly's mail checking is maintained on which type of schedule?

Fixed interval

58

After eating peanuts for the first time, Juliet experienced tingling in her mouth and throat a sign of an allergic reaction. Now the smell of peanuts alone is enough to make her mouth and throat tingle. This shows;

Taste Aversion

59

Brittany is daydreaming in class when her instructor asks her a question. Brittany finds that even through she was not paying attention, she can replay in her "mind's ear" the instructor's last words, taking advantage of a process called:

echoic memory

60

Olivia's allergies have accused her to have a stuffy nose, and she can barely taste her food. This BEST illustrates:

The role of olfaction in the perception of flavor

61

In second order conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a:

Previously established conditioned stimulus

62

The ____ memory store holds information for a maximum of 15 to 20 seconds in the absence of rehearsal.

Short Term

63

The bending of the ____ generates action potentials in the auditory nerve axons the travel to the brain

Inner hair cells

64

In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show that

Fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning

65

Rats that traversed a maze for 10 consecutive days with no reward showed no evidence of learning the maze. When reinforcement was provided beginning on the 11th day, Tolman reported that these rats:

Immediately demonstrated mastery of the maze.

66

John does not enjoy his food as much as he used to when he was a younger man. This is MOST likely because

taste perception fades with age.

67

Which of these is an essential feature of learning?

It is based on experience

68

Finn can write his name without purposely thinking about the steps. This is an example of _____ memory.

Procedural

69

The Rubin Vase illusion in which people either see a vase or two faces illustrates

A reversible figure-ground relationship

70

One reason our lips and fingertips are so sensitive is that they

Have a large area of representation int he somatosensory cortex

71

Kylie recently moved into an apartment with a new roommate who watches cable news seemingly all day and all night. The television is always on and always turned to the news. At first, Kyle found the television distracting, but after a few weeks, she barely even notices that it is on. This is example demonstrates the behavioral process of:

habituation

72

Sally trains a rat to press a lever to receive sugar pellets/ What type of conditioning is Sally utilizing?

Operant

73

When you are exposed to a flash of light, neurons in the eye that are sensitive to light send a neural signal to the brain. The conversion of light into neural signals is called"

transduction

74

A parent identified a new fruit that was good to eat. After watching the parrot eat the fruit, the other parrots int he flock also. begin eating the fruit. The behavior of the flock illustrates:

Observational learning

75

The process of organization, identification, and interpretation of a new sensation to form a mental representation is called

perception

76

Teratogen refers to

Any substance that passes from mother to unborn child and impairs development

77

What is the correct order of Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, formal operational

78

Jack is an infant who loves to play peek-a-boo with his father. He seems amazed that his father "reappears" after hiding his face behind his hands. Jack probably enjoys peek-a-boo because he does NOT yet understand:

object permanence

79

A researcher showed children a crayon box and opened it to reveal candy instead of crayons. Then she closed the box and asked the children what they originally had through was in it. Most 3-year olds said _____. and most 5 year olds said _____.

Candy Crayons

80

According to Erik Erikson's stages of psychological development, the major task confronting 15-year-old Tony is to develop:

A sense of who he is

81

Younger adults are generally oriented toward acquiring information useful to them in the future, and older adults are generally oriented toward information that:

gives them satisfaction in the present

82

Research has shown that

Adolescents are no moodier than are children

83

_____ is a person's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.

Personality

84

The technique MOST widely used by psychologists to collect information about someone's personality structure is:

self-report

85

Dr. Morose is a trait theorist. Which of these are they MOST likely to believe?

...

86

One reason the big Five is the current preferred theoretical perspective is that:

The same five-factors have emerged in various kinds of research on personality

87

We develop a self-concept primarily through:

interaction with others

88

Research examining the risks between personality and individuals' digital footprints revealed:

A correlation between self-reported Big Five personality traits and the contents of a person's social media posts.

89

People's tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures is termed:

The self-serving bias

90

Because he believes that he is a very generous and caring person, Alex feels upset when his roommate calls him selfish. Alex seeks:

Self-Verification

91

The ____ suggests that people behave aggressively when their goals are thwarted.

frustration aggression hypothesis

92

Which of these aggressive acts is LEAST likely to be committed by a woman?

Punching someone in the face after being insluted

93

Which of these is the most effective way to gain more resources

Cooperation

94

Even when participants are assigned to completely meaningless groups, it is highly likely that the all exhibit

preferential treatment to members of their own group.

95

After finding a defendant guilty, jurors deliberate as to how long a sentence to recommend. Although the average juror thinking that the crime merits 6 months in prison, after deliberation, the jury returns a sentencing recommendation of 2 years. This BEST describes:

Group Polarization

96

Which statement accurately summarizes the literature on proximity and attraction

Familiarity breeds liking

97

Faces of both sexes are judged to be more attractive when they have features that are

symmetrical

98

When we directly observe people we can still end up with _____ beliefs about the groups to which they belong

inaccurate

99

Suppose that students were given two tests. Before the tests, students were told that men usually do better than women do on test A but not on test B. Which set of results would be predicted by the literature on stereotype threats?

women performed more poorly than men did on test A but did just as well as men did on test B

100

Stereotypes often cannot be avoided, even if we try to correct for them, because they happen:

Automatically

101

Professor Anderson believes that Mary's failing grade on her most recent examination was due to her having three other exams that day. Professor Anderson is making a(n) ____ attribution.

situational

102

The ability to change or direct another person's behavior is termed:

Social Influence

103

A booklover who gets a paid job reviewing best-sellers for a newspaper finds herself having less motivation to read for pleasure, this is an example of:

The over justification effect.

104

Yasmine took her cousin jade out to lunch and picked up the tab. Jade said, "Thanks. I'll pay next time." Jade's response demonstrates what principle?

Norm of Reciprocity

105

When stores mark books with "Best Seller" stickers, they are attempting to use ______ to sell more books

informational influence

106

Which is a crucial element in the definition of a mental disorder?

significant distress or impairment

107

Anxiety and depression are said to be _____ with one another, as they often co-occur in a single individual

comorbid

108

Which country has the highest prevalence of mental disorders?

USA

109

Len has a family history of mental health disorders, but he never showed any signs of mental disorder until he passing of his father. The loss of his father triggered symptoms of depression. This is an example of the:

...

110

Phobias are Particularly likely to form of objects that evolution has predisposed us to avoid. This fact is most consistent with a ____ account of phobias.

preparedness

111

Cara constantly worries about losing her job, her credit card debt, her kids' performance in school, the ticking noise in her car, her weight, and a host of other things. She is also unable to sleep and is constantly irritated. These problems negatively affect her quality of life. Cara will probably be diagnosed with

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

112

Mateo feels like his home is never secure from intruders. He checks the lock on each door 12 times after he enters or exists his apartment. He also creates traps to detect the presence of intruders when he leaves the apartment. Mateo's symptoms most closely resemble:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

113

Without treatment, about _____ of people who experienced an episode of major depression will experience at least one reoccurrence of the disorder.

80%

114

Which of these is positive symptom of schizophrenia

Hallucinations

115

Eight-year-old Penn routinely bullies his siblings and throws objects at his family. Penn's family members have caught him stealing from the grocery store during the family's biweekly shopping trips. His parents believe he is getting out of control, and they are concerned that they can no longer handle him. If Penn's parents take him to a psychologist, which disorder would the psychologist test him for?

Conduct disorder