ENGLISH - AS ALL BASIC TERMS Flashcards


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ALL THE TERMS I NEED TO MEMORIZE FOR ENGLISH
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1

Editorial

-Official opinion of publication personal opinion,

-Can be formal or informal, written in first-person, low frequency lexis.

2

Flyers

-Informal

-Key information ; date, location, time, images

-Minimal, persuasive language, high-frequency lexis

-About an event, service, product or idea

3

Leaflets

-Advertises a product or a service

-Key information; product outline, details of offer, dates, place where available, concise,

-Formal, high frequency lexis.

4

News story

-Generally factual

Depends on topic and type, pictures, captions, headlines, headings, sub-headings, puns, other figurative language.

-Both high and low frequency lexis

5

Articles

-Explains writers opinion, personal and often chatty

-Written in first person, pictures, captions, headlines, headings, sub-headings, puns, other figurative language, high and low frequency

lexis.

6

Investigative Journalism

-Gives in-depth information about a topical issue

-Usually detached and formal; avoids sensationalist and emotional comment.

-Includes evidence; statistics, dates and times, images of documents

-Often uses low frequency lexis according to topic (expert vocabulary).

7

Review

-Evaluation of a product or collection of products; film; book; place.

-Usually informal but opinionated. Often uses jargon relating to the type of product (e.g., film-related language)

8

Blog

-Published through a website; like an online diary

-Particular topic, e.g. working in Italy. Informal.

-Written in first person,

-Uses figurative language, uses direct address to reader, usually starts with a heading and the date

-Often hyperlinks to other posts;focuses on one particular area of interest, diary-style but written with the view of many other like-minded people reading and commenting.

-Mostly high-frequency lexis, can use colloquialisms and slang.

9

Podcast

-Audio recording themed around a central topic, with one or more hosts to organise the content.

-Informal. Directly addresses the audience, often has numerous guests (interviews)

-usually follow a theme or idea, can be a series,

-Conversational phrases e.g. 'Of course

-May include sound effects (can include background 'noise for realistic effects.

10

Letter

-Written message to a limited audience. Depend on its audience and purpose; can be formal or informal.

-The salutation (Dear...)

-The closing (Yours sincerely)

-Language features depend on audience and purpose. Both high and low-frequency lexis, colloquialisms, slang, (depends on recipient).

11

Diary

-Keeps a daily record of personal events and experiences. Informal, personal, describes personal feelings and events.

-Written in first person, opinions and facts, Can use colloquialisms, slang and abbreviations.

-Date, Day, Time, Signal start ( Dear..) Signal end (Yours,..)

-High-level lexis, colloquialisms, slang and abbreviations.

12

Travel writing

Records experiences of travel.

Informal. First person, past tense Figurative language, opinions, facts.

13

Autobiographies

Self-written account of one's own life.

Informal. First person, past tense

Figurative language, opinions, facts events recorded in chronological order. Both high and low-frequency lexis, colloquialisms, slang,

14

Memoir

Narrative writing based in the writer's personal memories; usually focused on one particular time or event. (e.g the war).

Informal or formal, depends on what is being described. Mostly factual although some elements may be embellished to entertain. Both high and low-frequency lexis, colloquialisms, slang.

15

Essay

Usually critical and analytical argument or opinion. Usually formal.

Have a formal structure - an introduction, and a conclusion; clear evidence

-strong sense of logic and purpose, depends on the subject and audience

- could be either formal (with complex sentences and facts/figures) or informal (short sentences, metaphors, humorous langüage).

Both high and low-frequency lexis.

16

Narrative writing

Writing that tells a story. Informal. Follows Freitag's Pyramid structure. High and low frequency lexis.

17

Speech

Particular reason: event, celebration etc where someone speaks to a pre-determined audience.

Can be formal or informal depending on occasion, audience and topic. Contain repetition and formal rhetorical devices, uses phonological features and figurative language.

Both high and low-frequency lexis, colloquialisms, slang.

18

Descriptive writing

Describes place, person, thing. Infromal. uses figurative and sensory language. High and low frequency lexis.

19

Brochures

-Colourful heading; subheading - pictures & illustrations

-Display g&s for sale/rent

-Descriptive, persuasive, imagery, high frequency lexis

-Formal/informal

20

Language

Language

-words the author chooses to use to tell you his ideas.

-word choice and different figures of speech and language devices.

21

Form

Form

-genre of the text, and how the genre influences the way the text looks on the page. ( paragraphs, conventions basically )

-elements of form

22

Structure

Structure

-how the author organizes the information he wishes to convey

-how that information fits together to make the text a unified whole.

23

Nouns

  • Nouns:
    • Person, place, concept, object.
    • Common noun: city, person
    • Proper noun: Johannesburg, Lilike.

24

Pronouns

Pronouns:

  • Words you use in place of specific nouns, i.e. instead of saying Lilike you say she/her. There are many types, she/her being personal pronouns

25

Adjectives

Adjectives:

  • Words that describe nouns. They can be right before the noun in a sentence, or at the end of a sentence, i.e. the green apple vs. the apple is green.

26

Verbs

Verbs:

  • Action verbs: refer to literal actions.
  • Non Action verbs: to be, to do.

27

Adverbs

Adverbs:

  • Words that describe verbs.

28

Prepositions

Prepositions:

  • Tell us the relationship between words in a sentence. The dog is in the kennel. The man went down the mine. I bought everything but carpet.

29

Conjunctions

  • Conjunctions:
    • Link ideas together and allow us to make complex sentences. For example but / and are conjunctions.

30

Articles

Articles:

  • A tree, the leader.
  • Definite article: describes something specific, i.e. did you climb the tree?
  • Indefinite article: describes something general, i.e. did you climb a tree?

31

Interjections

Interjections:

  • Have no grammatical value, i.e. um, well, hey..

32

Prefixes

  • Prefixes:
    • Non- inter- post-, e.g. intergalactic

33

Suffixes

  • Suffixes:
    • -al -ation -ize, e.g. personal

34

Contractions

  • Contractions:
    • I’m instead of I am, aren’t instead of are not, here’s instead of here is, gonna instead of going to, etc.

35

Simple Sentence

Simple Sentence:

  • One independent clause (subject, verb, complete idea)
  • Clause: consists of a subject and predicate.
  • Subject: a part of a sentence that contains the person or thing performing the action (or verb) in a sentence.
  • Predicate: the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject (e.g. went home in John went home).

36

Compound sentence

Compound Sentence:

  • Two(+) independent clauses joined by a semicolon or conjunction. They could each form a sentence alone.
  • Independent clause + conjunction + independent clause.

37

Complex Sentences

Complex Sentence:

  • Independent and dependent clause. (A dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun, and contains a subject and verb, but does not express a complete thought.)
  • Subordinating conjunction: a word or phrase that links a dependent clause to an independent clause.
  • Relative pronoun: a word that introduces a dependent clause and connects it to an independent clause.
  • Independent clause + subordinating conjunction + dependent clause.

38

Complex compound sentences

Complex-compound sentence:

  • At least two independent clauses joined by a subordinating conjunction to one or more dependent clauses (joined by a coordinating conjunction).
  • Coordinating conjunction: a word that joins two elements of equal grammatical rank and syntactic importance. They can join two verbs, two nouns, two adjectives, two phrases, or two independent clauses. The seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. FANBOYS
  • Independent clause + subordinating conjunction + dependent clause + coordinating conjunction + dependent clause.

39

Paragraph structure

  • TEEECC ( TEACH)
  • Topic Sentence: States the main idea – a general statement.
  • Explanation / Definition (optional): Clarifies any difficult or unclear terms in the topic sentence.
  • Evidence: Supports or develops the main idea with facts, examples, experiments, studies, arguments, quotes, etc.
  • Comment: Explain what the evidence means and how it relates to your point. Supports or develops the evidence (e.g. contrasting points, analysis, etc.)
  • Concluding sentence: States the implications or consequences of the paragraph, links it back to the topic sentence and main idea. Links forwards to the next paragraph.

40

Text level structure

1. Intro:

  • Introductory information: opening sentence (hook), interesting fact / quotation.
  • Thesis: Write a sentence or statement describing the purpose of your paper. This must answer the prompt.
  • List everything you will be talking about in your body paragraphs.
  • Topic + Stance + Reasons.

2. 1st Body Paragraph:

  • Topic sentence: Describes what your paragraph is about.
  • Write about the first item listed in your thesis statement.
  • Stick to the topic.
  • Make sure it all relates to your thesis. If needed, explain how.

3. 2nd Body Paragraph:

  • Topic/Transition Sentence: A topic sentence that segues into your next paragraph. Your paragraphs should move from one topic to another logically.
  • Stick to the topic.
  • Make sure it all relates to your thesis. If needed, explain how.

4. Conclusion:

  • Final transition sentence.
  • Sum up all your major points. NOT VERBATIM. Use different vocabulary.
  • Rephrase your thesis, and link the points you made in the body of your essay to your final conclusion / point of view given the information in your body.
  • Make a universal comment on your topic that anyone can connect with.

41

CAPSSIG

Context

Audience

Purpose

Structure

Style

Intention

Genre

42

Tone

-regretful, negative, melancholic etc.

43

Audience

Age range, cultural context, individual ideology

44

Genre

Descriptive, Analytical, Argumentative, Comical Piece

45

PEE Method ( to be used in explaining points )

Point, Example, Elaborate.

46

Purpose (DIEE)

why did the author write the piece ?

- Describe, Inform, Instruct, Explain

47

Modality

degree of importance

48

Pragmatics

What an author implies -

situational context, connotation, syntax

49

Semantics

meaning in language

Connotative - Broader and open to interpretation

Denotative - meaning provide a scientific factual description

50

Lexical choice/field

Choice : contributes to different affects achieved

Field : Describes the way certain words in a text relates to/ or seems to be about

51

Sentence functions

Declarative : make a statement

Interrogative : ask a question

Exclamatory : express surprise, shock , stength of feeling and so on

Imperative : order or command

52

Figurative devices (So Much Super Pretty Ppl)

Simile : - 'like' as' one thing compared to another

Metaphor : assumes a comparation without 'like' 'as

Personification : THING, IDEA OR animal given human attributes

Symbolism : event, image, idea represents a larger idea

Pathetic fallacy : personification like weather features reflecting a mood

53

Viewpoints

-First-person

-Second person

-Third person

-Omniscient third person

54

Comparative/Superlative

-c : comparing two things

-s : more than two things

55

Lexis for comparison

-in the same way

-both

-similarly

-likewise

-as well as

-have in common

56

Lexis for contrast

-whereas

-on the contrary

-although

-yet

-however

-on the other hand

57

Lexis for connotation

This ;

-suggests..

-evokes a sense of..

-conveys..

-implies..

-conjures up..

-establishes a sense of..

-represents..

58

Anecdote

-personal story regarding the subjects

59

Reflective writing

  • Describe : What happened? What did you do?
  • Interpret
  • Evaluate : What does the experience mean to you as a learner, thinker, writer? Why?
  • How valuable was the experience? Why?
  • Plan : What will you do with your learning? How will you do it?

60

Comparative Essay

Intention: State difference - NO judgement

VIEWS: presents both ( the yays & the nays)

Stance: NONE

61

Discursive Essay

Intention: Provoke discussions

VIEWS: presents both (the yays & the nays)

Stance: NEUTRAL

62

Persuasive essay

Intention: Convince YOUR truth

VIEWS: opposing points are used as base to convince points when negating

Stance: MAY be hinted from the start

63

Argumentative essay

Intention: provoke arguments

VIEWS: points from stance DOMINATES

Stance: WILL STRONGLY BE SHOWN FROM THE BEGINNING