Lecture 5 tools for managers Flashcards

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Decision-Making Process 8 Steps

1. Problem Identification
2. Decision making criteria (most relevance factors in solving the problem)
3. Weighting of the criteria (from 1 to 10)
4. Identifying alternatives
5. Analyzing alternatives (against standers)
6. Making the decision
7. Implementing the decision (planning, communication)
8. Evaluating the outcome (EEAA , Efficient, Effective, Appropriate, Adequate)


Basic types of decisions include

  • Programmed (Frontline manager, routine, predictable, structured problems)
  • Programmable (start-up, new managers, problems ^)
  • non-programmed (Top level manager, new, unusual, and unpredictable, unstructured problems)


Decision-Making Styles

  • Avoider - procrastinator
  • Solver - reactive
  • Seeker - proactive


Group decision making is subject to what dynamics

  • Accommodation – dominant member
  • De Facto Decisions – made passively
  • Groupthink – group cohesiveness


Methods used to facilitate group decision making include

  • Brainstorming
  • Nominal Group Technique
  • Delphi Technique


The Communication Process 6 steps

1. Sender of message
2. Encoding meaning of the message
3. Transmitting through channels influences by noise
4. Decoding meaning of the message
5. Receiver understanding of the message
6. Feedback loop


Hearing VS Listening

  • Hearing is a physical sense that is involuntary and passive and may be done without paying attention. Effortless, accidental.
  • Listening is a active process that requires effort or attention from the listener. Focused, voluntary, intentional.



1. Content
2. Language
3. Symbols (tangible)
4. Delivery style
5. Complexity (detail)
6. Focus


What dose massage packaging means, and what does it includes?

The packaging of a message refers to how the message is conveyed.
Packaging includes:
• Channels
• Setting
• Timing
• Noise
• Feedback
• Personal Characteristics


types of channels

  • direct
  • indirect


Meaning of Artifacts

tangible items, the presence and placement of which may interfere with communication


Meaning of Proxemics

describes the spatial relationships between the sender and
receiver of the message


Communication Barriers

  1. Regional language
  2. Gender
  3. Generational differences
  4. Becoming emotional
  5. Ignoring conflicting information


Guidelines for Intercultural Communication

Expect cultural differences
Learn about other cultures
objective observer of differences
• different means “different"
• Don’t jump to conclusions
• Avoid stereotyping
• try taking other perspective
• value diversity


What is Marketing ?

  • is a management tool
  • focuses on identifying the needs, wants, and demands of customers and developing products to meet them


Marketing influences dietetics in what ways

• Dietitians are marketers of their own products
• The profession of dietetics is a target market for businesses


An organization may view its marketplace in one of five ways list them

1. Production perspective favor products that are readily
available and affordable.
2. Product perspective focuses on the product features.
3. Selling perspective focused on getting the customer to purchase the product - promotion.
4. Marketing perspective considers production, sales, products, and promotion based on consumers needs, wants, demands.
5. Social marketing perspective balances the needs wants and demands of the consumer with those of the organization and of society.


Target Markets

  • segmentation - subgroup characteristics
  • targeting - studying the market segment to determine products developed
  • positioning - presenting a product with the features


market research consist of

  1. Needs identification - be selective & avoid info overload - about target market & competition.
  2. Information gathering - primary & secondary data
  3. Data analysis - evaluation


primary VS secondary data

  • Primary data is information that is gather specifically for that purpose
  • Secondary data is information that is already available, either free or available for purchase


The Four P’s of Marketing (mix)

• Product - goods vs services
• Place - distribution channel simple (direct) or complex (indirect)
• Price
• Promotion


goods vs services

  • Goods - tangible products - Ownership is transferable
  • Services - intangibility, inseparability, variability, perishability


wholesaler vs retailer

  • A wholesaler is a person who buys products from the producer and sells them to the retailer, who then sells them to the user
  • A retailer is a person who sells products to the end
    user of that product
  • retailer often purchase their product from middlemen


Service Distribution is usually dependent on

direct channels because of inseparability


cost of producing the product includes

• Cost of raw materials
• Cost of labor
• Anticipated profit
• Overhead costs


In healthcare foodservice price is often based

on the formula that food cost is 40% of the selling price of an


Pricing strategy also takes the following factors into consideration

• Price of competitive products
• Perceived value of the product
• Customer expectations
• Pricing psychology
• Available subsidies
• State of the economy
• Price adjustments


Price adjustments include

• Promotions pricing
• Options pricing
• Product line pricing


Promotion Techniques include

• Advertising - one way impersonal
• Personal selling - face to face
• Sales promotion - coupons, sales, or games
• Public relations - unpaid, more credible
• Merchandising - physical display